CONCEPT – TREATY OF WESTPHALIA

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 CONCEPT – TREATY OF WESTPHALIA

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    • What was it : The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. The treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War and the Eighty Years’ War.
    • The Thirty Years’ War : It was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a conflict involving most of the great powers.
    • The Eighty Years’ War : It was the Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648), was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, sovereign of Habsburg Netherlands.
    • What it means : According to the Peace of Westphalia, all parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555; Christians of non-dominant denominations were guaranteed the right to practice their faith; and the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad was recognized. Multiple territorial adjustments were also decided.
    • What did it establish : The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace reached by diplomatic congress and a new system of political order in Europe based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. The Westphalian principle of the recognition of another state’s sovereignty and right to decide its own fate rests at the foundations of international law today.
    • The European colonization of Asia and Africa : This, in the 19th century, and two global wars in the 20th century dramatically undermined the principles established in Westphalia.
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                                                                                                                                        PT's IAS Academy: CONCEPT – TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
                                                                                                                                        CONCEPT – TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
                                                                                                                                        Excellent study material for all civil services aspirants - begin learning - Kar ke dikhayenge!
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