Excellent study material for all civil services aspirants - begin learning - Kar ke dikhayenge!
Sixth Schedule Areas - Explained
Read more on - Polity | Economy | Schemes | S&T | Environment
- What these are: The Sixth Schedule in the Indian Constitution established Autonomous District Councils (ADC) in four northeastern states, namely Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. These ADCs envisage protecting and preserving tribal culture.
- Logic: The rationale behind the creation of ADCs was that relationship to the land is the basis of tribal or indigenous identity. The culture and identity of indigenous people can be preserved by ensuring their control over land and natural resources, as these factors to a large extent determine the lifestyle and culture of the indigenous people. A central authority cannot do it.
- Conflicts: But this arrangement resulted in conflicts between different groups, for instance, tribal vs. non-tribal. It also undermined social harmony, stability and economic development of the state and the region.
- Special Status of Sixth Schedule Areas: The Sixth Schedule was originally intended for the predominantly tribal areas (tribal population over 90%) of undivided Assam, which was categorised as “excluded areas” under the Government of India Act, 1935 and was under the direct control of the Governor. It provided for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram to safeguard the rights of the tribal population in these states. This special provision is provided under Article 244(2) and Article 275(1) of the Constitution.
- Autonomy: It provides for autonomy in the administration of these areas through Autonomous District Councils (ADCs). These councils are empowered to make laws in respect of areas under their jurisdiction, which cover the land, forest, cultivation, inheritance, indigenous customs and traditions of tribals, etc. and also to collect land revenues and certain other taxes. The ADCs are like miniature states having specific powers and responsibilities in respect of all the three arms of governance: Legislature, executive and judiciary.
- Some tricky issues:
- Undermining of constitutional principles: The Sixth Schedule discriminates against the non-tribal residents in various ways and infringes upon their fundamental rights, like the right to equality before the law (Article 14), right against discrimination (Article 15), and the right to settle anywhere in India (Article 19). This has resulted in repeated bouts of riots between tribals and non-tribals, driving many non-tribals out.
- Multiple centres of power: It has created multiple power centres instead of bringing in a genuine process of autonomy in the region. There are frequent conflict of interest cases between the District Councils and the State Legislatures. In Meghalaya, despite the formation of the state, the whole of the state continues to be under the sixth schedule causing frequent conflict with the state government.
- Conflict with Act-East policy: The restrictions under the sixth schedule act as a roadblock for the success of Act East Policy, for which seamless connectivity and exchange within the Northeastern states are essential. Similarly, Inner Line Permit (ILP) deters investors and tourists and thereby hampers economic development in the region.
- Summary: Some sSpecial constitutional protections are needed for marginalised sections to ensure that historical wrongs done to them are reversed and not repeated, but it has denied justice to the non-tribals, who have lived in ADCs for generations but ended up marginalised. The government needs to win the confidence of the tribals and non-tribals within the region and bring a sense of security and belongingness among them to deal with this sensitive issue.