Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 08-04-2021


Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 08-04-2021


  • [message]
  1. World Economy - Digital Currency of China - China launched the latest round of pilot trials of its new digital currency in the month of February 2021. The plan will be launched on a large scale at the end of 2021 and before the Beijing Winter Olympics in February 2022. The digital renminbi, officially called "Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP)", is the digital version of Chinese currency that can be downloaded and also exchanged through an application authorized by the People's Bank of China (PBOC). This is legal currency guaranteed by the central bank, not money guaranteed by a third-party operator. There are no third-party transactions, so there are no transaction fees. Unlike electronic wallets, digital currencies do not require an Internet connection. Payment is made through Near Field Communication technology. Unlike non-bank payment platforms that require users to link a bank account, the account can be opened with a personal identification code. Unlike non-bank payment platforms that require users to link a bank account, the account can be opened with a personal identification code.
  2. Energy - Renewable Capacity Statistics Report 2021 - The "Renewable Capacity Statistics 2021 report" was released by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). It said that 260 gigawatts (GW) of new renewable energy capacity was added worldwide in 2020, up 50% from 2019, as countries further reduced their reliance on fossil fuel power. More than 80% of all new electricity capacity added in 2020 was renewable, with solar and wind accounting for 91% of new renewables. Rise in new capacity was partly due to the decommissioning of fossil fuel power generation in Europe, North America and in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia and Turkey. China, the world's largest market for renewables, added 136 GW of renewables last year, while the United States installed 29 GW. Share of renewables in energy generation worldwide stands at 30%. Nations are switching from fossil fuels to renewables in an effort to meet the long-term goal, agreed under the 2015 Paris Agreement, of limiting a rise in average temperatures to below 2o C above pre-industrial levels. This requires countries to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050.
  3. Healthcare and Medicine - India Covid update - India posted 1,26,789 fresh Covid cases, setting another grim one-day record as the county battles the second wave of infections. 685 deaths in the last 24 hour pushed the total death count to 1,66,862. The total number of cases since the first recorded infection in India in January last year now stands at over 1.29 crore, making it the third worst-hit country after the United States and Brazil. In parts of Maharashtra, the country's worst-hit state, vaccination was halted last evening, reportedly because doses were unavailable. Soon, a war of words broke out between the Centre and the state, both blaming each other for misrepresentation. Then, the centre decided to send 17 lakh doses instead of the earlier-promised 7.3 lakh to Maharashtra. Maha claimed it must get more of the vaccine as Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are getting over 40 lakh does, Gujarat over 30 lakh and Harayana over 24 lakh. Meanwhile, New Zealand has banned the entry of Indians for some time.
  4. Science and Technology - National Super Computing Mission (NSM) - India is fast emerging a leader in high power computing with the National Super Computing Mission (NSM). The NSM was launched to enhance the research capacities and capabilities in India by connecting them to form a Supercomputing grid, with National Knowledge Network (NKN) as the backbone. Guided by: Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). Implemented by: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune, and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. Completion of Phase II of NSM in September 2021 will take the country’s computing power to 16 Petaflops (PF). PARAM Shivay, the first supercomputer assembled indigenously, was installed in IIT (BHU), followed by PARAM Shakti, PARAM Brahma, PARAM Yukti, PARAM Sanganak at IIT-Kharagpur, IISER, Pune, JNCASR, Bengaluru and IIT Kanpur respectively. PARAM Siddhi – AI, the high-performance computing-artificial intelligence (HPC-AI) supercomputer, has achieved global ranking of 63 in TOP 500 most powerful supercomputer systems in the world, released on 16th November 2020.
  5. Indian Economy - First monetary policy for FY22 - The Reserve Bank of India’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) decided to keep its short term lending rate or the repo rate unchanged at 4 per cent, in line with market expectations. The RBI Governor said the central bank will maintain its ‘accommodative stance’ as long as required to sustain growth on a durable basis. The RBI maintained its GDP growth forecast at 10.5 per cent for 2021-22. It announced a series of measures to inject liquidity in the government securities market (G-secs) and the financial system. RBI will ensure orderly conduct of government borrowing programme. In this respect, the central bank announced a secondary market government securities (G-sec) acquisition plan worth Rs 1 lakh crore for April-June. Amid the government plans to support a new asset reconstruction company being set up by banks, the RBI has decided to set up a committee to review the working of ARCs to ensure how better these entities can support the financial sector. In the policy review, the RBI decided to extend the RTGS and NEFT payments platforms to prepaid payment instruments, white label ATMs as well.
  6. Education - 'Lab on Wheels' Programme - Delhi Education Minister Manish Sisodia has inaugurated Delhi Technological University's 'Lab on Wheels' programme. It will have students of the university travelling in a bus across Delhi to teach government school students and underprivileged children. The idea is to impart education in the fields of Mathematics and Science to those students who come from marginalised and poor economic backgrounds, in order to pique their interests in these subjects while pursuing higher education. In the end, the hope is that it becomes mutually beneficial, if some of these students decide to take admission in DTU once they finish schooling. The ‘Lab on Wheels’ will comprise 16 computers, two televisions, one 3D printer, one laptop, cameras and one printer. It will be Wi-Fi enabled, with 100 per cent power back up and fully air-conditioned.
  7. Science and Technology - INS Sarvekshak - The INS Sarvekshak, a hydrographic survey ship, is on a deployment to Mauritius for undertaking joint hydrographic surveys along with their Mauritian counterparts. During the deployment, training of Mauritian personnel on advanced hydrographic equipment and practices will also be undertaken. The ship visited Port Louis, Mauritius and commenced the hydrographic survey of ‘Deep sea area off Port Louis’. INS Sarvekshak, a specialised survey ship is fitted with state-of-the-art survey equipment like Deep Sea Multi-Beam Echo Sounder, Side Scan Sonars and a fully automated digital surveying and processing system. In addition, the ship carries an integral Chetak helicopter, which would be extensively deployed during the survey. INS Sarvekshak has undertaken various foreign cooperation surveys over the last few years in Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania and Kenya.
  8. Governance and Institutions - AI Portal SUPACE - The Chief Justice of India (CJI) launched an Artificial Intelligence (AI) based portal ‘SUPACE’ in the judicial system aimed at assisting judges with legal research. SUPACE is short for Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court’s Efficiency. Earlier, the E-Courts Project was conceptualised on the basis of "National Policy and Action Plan for Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Indian Judiciary - 2005" submitted by the e-Committee of the Supreme Court. It is a tool that collects relevant facts and laws and makes them available to a judge. It is not designed to take decisions, but only to process facts and to make them available to judges looking for an input for a decision. Initially, it will be used on an experimental basis by the judges of Bombay and Delhi High Courts who deal with criminal matters.
  9. Defence and Military - Multilateral Maritime Exercise La Perouse - Indian Navy Ships INS Satpura and INS Kiltan alongwith P8I Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft are participating, for the first time in multilateral maritime exercise La Pérouse, being conducted in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region from 5th to 7th April 2021. Post conduct of La Perouse, the Indo-French Naval exercise “Varuna“ is scheduled in the Western Indian Ocean, wherein UAE too shall be participating. The first edition of La Pérouse joint exercise, initiated by France in 2019, included ships from Australia, Japan and the US. The exercise is named after the eighteenth century French Naval explorer. India's participation in 2021 completed the QUAD force representation in the French led Naval Exercise. QUAD is a grouping of India, USA, Australia and Japan which aims to safeguard the interests of democratic nations in the Indo-Pacific region and address global challenges.
  10. Indian Economy - India's first Q.E. programme launched - RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das on 07-04-2021 announced the GSAP or G-sec acquisition programme (G-sec - government securities). This became India's own planned Quantitative Easing programme. The government of India issues financial securities known as government securities or government bonds, in order to finance its fiscal deficit (the difference between what it earns and what it spends). Banks, insurance companies, non-banking finance companies, mutual funds and other financial institutions, buy these securities. Some are mandated to do so, others do it out of their own free will. In the GSAP, the RBI will print money and buy government securities. For the first quarter of 2021-22 (April to June), the RBI has committed to buying government securities worth Rs 1 lakh crore. After Lehman Brothers, the fourth largest investment bank on Wall Street went bust in September 2008, the Federal Reserve of the United States (American central bank) came up with three rounds of large-scale asset purchases (LSAP). The LSAP was popularly referred to as quantitative easing or QE.
  • [message]
  • [message]
    • 1. ECONOMY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper)
COVID-19 impact: India's debt to GDP ratio zooms
  • The story: India's debt to GDP ratio increased from 74 % to 90 % during the COVID-19 pandemic, as per the International Monetary Fund. Over time, the IMF expects this to drop.
  • Details: IMF said that in the case of India, the debt ratio grew by a very large measure, but it is something that other emerging markets and advanced economies have experienced as well. And, for the case of India, IMF expects that the debt ratio will gradually come down as the economy recovers. It may reduce to 80 per cent over a few years.
  • What government is aiming: The present priorities are to continue supporting people and firms, and to focus on supporting the most vulnerable. At the same time, it is important to reassure the general public and investors that public finance is under control and the way to do so is through a credible medium-term fiscal framework. India's FY21-22 budget continues to be accommodative, as does the RBI's monetary policy. It continues to support health and people. Over the next years, it is quite likely that the deficit will be reduced in part as the economy recovers.
  • EM story: More generally in emerging markets, the very large increases in inequality has led to some panic. Given the large increases in public debt, priority for governments is to mobilise revenues in the medium term. Given the widening deficits and contraction in economic activity, debt worldwide increased sharply to 97 percent of GDP in 2020. It will increase slower to 99 percent in 2021 before stabilising below but close to 100 percent of GDP.
  • Fiscal policy: In 2020, fiscal policy contributed to mitigating falling economic activity and employment. It avoided falls on the scale of the great depression of 1930s. Countries with better access to financing, countries with stronger buffers, countries with stronger fundamentals have been able to give more fiscal support during 2020. They can sustain that fiscal support for longer.
  • Summary: For India, it is extremely crucial that in the coming five to ten years, it maintains a high GDP growth trajectory, otherwise the government revenues and ability to repay debt would reduce. That will create a growing vicious spiral, best avoided. A high GDP growth trajectory will also be needed for higher per capita incomes and better life standards, both hit hard during the pandemic


Global middle class is shrinking
  • Globalisation's success story: A big trend of the past few decades has been the emergence of a global middle class, a cohort of consumers that was expected to continue to grow relentlessly, as rising incomes in developing countries lifted millions out of poverty each year. Global economic planning was based on this core assumption.
  • Pandemic changed it all: Sadly, the 2020 pandemic, raging well into its 2021 phase, has destroyed that assumption. For the first time since the 1990s, the global middle class shrank. This is according to Pew Research Center estimates. About 15 crore people — a number equal to the populations of the UK and Germany combined — tumbled down the socioeconomic ladder in 2020, with South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa seeing the biggest declines.
  • Developing world hit hard: Defining the global middle class is tough, but Pew Research labels as middle income those making from $10.01 to $20 a day, using data that smooth out differences in purchasing power across countries.
  1. In Pew’s analysis, there’s a separate upper-middle-income band made up of those earning $20.01 to $50 a day. (Note that $50 per day falls shy of what a minimum wage worker in the U.S. takes home pretax for an eight-hour day.) Others, such as the Brookings Institution, have opted for a more expansive $10 to $100 a day definition.
  2. Taken together, Pew’s middle-income and upper-middle-income brackets encompass roughly 2.5 billion people (a third of the world’s population).
  • China and India: It is home to one-third of the world’s middle class, and appears to be recovering quickly. India will end 2021 with a gross domestic product that’s 5.2% smaller than it would have been otherwise. Indonesia’s output will be 9.2 per cent smaller than its pre-crisis trend foretold. The US will be just 1.6 per cent smaller.
  1. Overall, the drop in percentage terms in middle and upper-middle classes in China, India and South Asia in 2020 was approx. 4%, 32% and 25%, respectively.
  2. The second-order economic effects of the pandemic are only now being understood, and that a rebound in growth rates is being mistaken for a lasting recovery. The ripple effects of the pandemic have been particularly visible in India’s automobile sector, which is the world’s fourth-largest and accounts for half of the country’s entire manufacturing output. It saw a fall in vehicle sales of more than 18 per cent in the 12 months through February 2021.
  • Brazil's story: Data show that residents of Brazil, the world’s No. 1 exporter of beef, are eating less of it. Per capita, beef consumption fell 5%, to 29.3 kilograms (64.6 pounds) in 2020, its lowest level since 1996. At the same time, consumption of eggs rose 3.8 per cent, hitting a new high.
  • South Africa's story: Many South Africans now find themselves without a job. Nationwide, the vacancy rate rose to a record 13.3 per cent in the first quarter of 2021 from 7.5 per cent a year earlier. Most of the pressure has been on units that rent for about $475 a month or less, which account for two-thirds of the formal market.
  • Summary: The world economy stands structurall redefined now.

  • [message]
    • 2. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper
Forest fires: a burning concern
  • The story: For the past few months, a series of forest fires in many states of India, including in Wildlife Sanctuaries, has rattled authorities and public alike. These can cause significant damage to vegetation, ecology, humans and the economy.
  • Points to note: Also called bush or vegetation fire or wildfire, "forest fires" can be described as any uncontrolled and non-prescribed combustion or burning of plants in a natural setting such as a forest, grassland, brush land or tundra, which consumes the natural fuels and spreads based on environmental conditions (e.g., wind, topography). Forest Fires can be incited by human actions, such as land clearing, extreme drought or in rare cases by lightning. There are three conditions that need to be present in order for a wildfire to burn: fuel, oxygen, and a heat source.
  • Instances of forest fires in 2021: January 2021 saw prolonged fires in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh (Kullu Valley) and Nagaland-Manipur border (Dzukou Valley). The Simlipal National Park in Odisha saw a major fire between February-end and early March 2021. Fires also include those in Bandhavgarh Forest Reserve in Madhya Pradesh, and in sanctuaries for the Asiatic lion and the great Indian bustard in Gujarat.
  • Vulnerability of forests: As of 2019, about 21.67% (7,12,249 sq km) of the country’s geographical area is identified as forest, according to the India State of Forest Report 2019 (ISFR) released by the Forest Survey of India (FSI), Dehradun. Tree cover makes up another 2.89% (95,027 sq km). Based on previous fire incidents and records, forests of the Northeast and central India regions are the most vulnerable areas to forest fires. Forests in Assam, Mizoram and Tripura have been identified as ‘extremely prone’ to forest fire. States with large forest areas under the ‘very highly prone’ category include Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Maharashtra, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. As per the 2020-2021 annual report of the MoEFCC, Western Maharashtra, Southern Chhattisgarh and areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, along with central Odisha, are turning into ‘extremely prone’ forest fire hotspots. Areas under the ‘highly prone’ and ‘moderately prone’ categories make up about 26.2% of the total forest cover — a whopping 1,72,374 sq km.
  • Causes: Forest fires can be caused by a number of natural causes, but many major fires in India are triggered mainly by human activities. Emerging studies link climate change to rising instances of fires globally, especially the massive fires of the Amazon forests in Brazil and in Australia in the last two years. Fires of longer duration, increasing intensity, higher frequency and highly inflammable nature are all being linked to climate change.
  1. In India, forest fires are most commonly reported during March and April, when the ground has large quantities of dry wood, logs, dead leaves, stumps, dry grass and weeds that can make forests easily go up in flames if there is a trigger.
  2. In Uttarakhand, the lack of soil moisture too is being seen as a key factor. In two consecutive monsoon seasons (2019 and 2020), rainfall has been deficient by 18% and 20% of the seasonal average, respectively.
  3. Most fires are man-made, sometimes even deliberately caused. For example, in Odisha, which saw a major fire last month in Simlipal forest, villagers are known to set dry leaves to fire in order to collect mahua flowers, which go into preparation of a local drink.
  • Impact: Forest fires can have multiple adverse effects on the forest cover, soil, tree growth, vegetation, and the overall flora and fauna. Heat generated during the fire destroys animal habitats. Soil quality decreases with the alteration in their compositions. Soil moisture and fertility, too, is affected. Forests can permanently shrink in size. The trees that survive fire often remain stunted and growth is severely affected.
  • Importance of forests: Forests play an important role in mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and act as a sink, reservoir and source of carbon. A healthy forest stores and sequesters more carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem. In India, with 1.70 lakh villages in close proximity to forests (Census 2011), the livelihood of several crores of people is dependent on fuelwood, bamboo, fodder, and small timber.
  • Efforts: Since 2004, the FSI (Forest Survey of India) developed the Forest Fire Alert System to monitor forest fires in real time. In its advanced version launched in January 2019, the system now uses satellite information gathered from NASA and ISRO. The National Action Plan on Forest Fires (NAPFF) 2018 and Forest Fire Prevention and Management Scheme.
  • Summary: India has given ambitious NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) to the Paris Climate deal, including raising its forest cover substantially. Steps must be taken to ensure that fires don't turn these targets to ash.


  • [message]
    • 3. FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper)

Myanmar crisis - India’s response and the issue of refugees
  • India on Myanmar, 2021: India finally moved to a more pro-active stand as concerns grew worldwide about growing internal strife and instability in Myanmar, after the military coup that grabbed power from elected political leaders. After a closed-door UNSC meeting on Myanmar, Ambassador TS Tirumurti, India’s Permanent Representative to the UNGA, responded by condemning the violence in Myanmar and condoled the loss of lives. He called for the release of detained leaders and urged maximum restraint.
  • What this message means: The messages shows India’s commitment to a democratic transition, and there also was a statement about supporting peace efforts by the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN, of which Myanmar is a member). But ASEAN has been tentative, even timid, in the face of China’s support to the military junta in Myanmar (the Tatmadaw).
  • Significance with India’s stance: The April 2021 statement is the most clear one so far by India on Myanmar and a response to criticism of its earlier stand. It marks a departure from the stance befriending the military (which has not always been friendly to India’s interests) and engaging with the civilian government, which held office only for 5 years.
  • Current bloody situation: There is increasing disorder in Myanmar which appears to be escalating as the civil disobedience movement (CDM) flares. The CDM has been innovative, energetic and driven by young people in the majority Burman and Buddhist-dominated heartland. Disobedience could lead to extensive civil disorder and worse. Daily shows of defiance occur, the banks are not functional, and markets are shut. The only courts which appear to be open are those used to present detainees and those charged with violations of regime controls while the cases against Suu Kyi and her colleagues pile up.
  1. The battle-scarred armies of the ethnic groups had fought the Myanmar army to a standstill over nearly 70 years. They had recently signed a ceasefire with Suu Kyi.
  2. These groups are now preparing for war again and are allying with each other. A provisional government of leaders who escaped detention has been announced.
  • India’s priorities now: India’s concerns at this stage are mainly two - (i) the people of Myanmar - they have tasted freedom of expression, assembly and association for the first time in decades under Suu Kyi, and are rightfully determined to hold on to this freedom, and (ii) India's North-East - the future stability and security of India’s north-east is crucial. The Act East and Neighbourhood First policies are anchored in the eight states of the North-east.
  1. India keeps in mind the various insurgent groups from the North-east, who have a history of relations with ethnic armed groups in Myanmar.
  2. The insurgents often take shelter there and establish bases, and some still live there.
  • Impact on Centre-State relations: The four states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram have long borders with Myanmar. The last two states have taken some 1,500 persons, including a number of junior police officials, fleeing from the crackdown in the bordering Chin State. New Delhi advised the states on the border not to allow Myanmar nationals fleeing the crackdown to enter Indian territory. But Mizoram CM Zoramthanga has rejected this approach, saying that his government will accept people fleeing, on humanitarian grounds. He wrote to the prime minister saying that as the world’s largest democracy, India could not simply stand aside heartlessly. The Manipur government, too, has withdrawn its circular which had asked district officials along the border to “politely” turn back refugees.
  • A refugee policy: The Chins in Myanmar and the Mizos and Kukis (and sub-groups) in Mizoram and Manipur are kin. A historical affinity connects them by ethnicity, religion, and language. In the aftermath of the 1988 army crackdown on the pro-democracy movement that killed thousands, many Chins and other refugees fled to Manipur and Mizoram. Local leaders and non-government groups, with the tacit support of central and state agencies, allowed them to live, work and even settle. The present situation thus must be utilised by India to develop a long-term approach to the issue of refugees fleeing political persecution in their homelands. India does not have a National Refugee Law nor is it a signatory to the UN Convention governing refugees.
  • History: India has allowed Tibetans, Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka, Chakmas of Bangladesh, the Lothsampas of Nepali origin from Bhutan, Afghans, Somalis and many others into this land. But these remain ad hoc approaches. This has been sought to be addressed for six “minority” communities of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in a long-term manner by the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA). But the CAA does not cover many of the cases listed above.
  • What does this call for: A national mechanism needs to be developed which goes beyond short-term measures. It must take into account a needs-based assessment of how best to handle rapid outflows of persecuted persons.


  • [message]
    • 4. GOVERNMENT SCHEMES (Prelims, GS Paper 2, Essay paper)

Interim appointment of CBI Director
  • The story: The Supreme Court has reminded the government in April 2021 that interim appointments to the post of CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) Director cannot continue. This was in response to a petition filed in the Court, objecting to the appointment of interim CBI Director following the retirement of the regular CBI director.
  • Points to note: The petition urged the SC to note that the government had failed to appoint a regular Director through the high-power selection committee of the Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India and Leader of Opposition. An interim appointment through an executive order was not envisaged in the statutory scheme of the 1946 Act (Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946). It urged the court to direct the introduction of a mechanism to ensure that the process of selection of CBI Director is completed one or two months in advance of the retirement of the incumbent.
  1. The petitioner referred to the case of Anjali Bhardwaj v. Union of India (2019) - related to vacancies at Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions.
  2. The Supreme Court had held that “it would be apposite that the process for filling up of a particular vacancy is initiated 1 to 2 months before the date on which the vacancy is likely to occur so that there is not much time-lag between the occurrence of vacancy and filling up of the said vacancy."
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI): It was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Now it comes under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964). It is not a statutory body but derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946. It is the main investigating agency of the Central Government, and provides assistance to the Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal. It is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
  • Functioning of CBI:
  1. Legal problems - Lack of clearly demarcated spheres of functioning and overlapping areas of influence severely comprises both the integrity and efficacy of the institution. Under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946, for conduct or continuance of investigation into offences committed within the territory of a state, consent of the state is crucial.
  2. Poor HR planning - Shortages of officers at the CBI may hamper quality of investigations and increase pendency, a Parliamentary panel said in the year 2020. The panel observed that 789 posts in executive ranks, 77 posts of law officers and 415 posts of technical officers and staff were lying vacant.
  3. Lack of investments - Inadequate investment in personnel, training, equipment or other support structures, adversely hampers professional discharge of duties. High quality research and training are crucial for maintaining an effective modern police force imparting it with the operational ability to meaningfully respond to ever changing societal needs.
  4. Accountability - In the past few decades massive strides have been made in imbibing traits of transparency and accountability into public life and institutions. Of equal importance is the need to maintain morale of the force by enforcing stringent internal accountability.
  5. Political and administrative interference - Given that the superintendence and control of the agency continues to, in large measure, lie with the executive by virtue of Section 4 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946, the possibility of it being used as a political instrument remains ever present.
  • Summary: There is a need to ensure that CBI operates under a formal, modern legal framework that has been written for a contemporary investigative agency. A new CBI Act should be promulgated that ensures the autonomy of CBI while at the same time improving the quality of supervision. There is also a need to administratively protect CBI from political interference. For this to happen, the new Act must specify criminal culpability for government interference.


  • [message]
    • 5. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION (Prelims, GS Paper 2, GS Paper 3)
Police reforms in India - Prakash Singh judgement
  • The story: Political interference in police postings in India continues unabated despite the landmark "Prakash Singh judgment" nearly a decade-and-a-half ago. The latest episode of allegations of lobbying by several IPS officers in Maharashtra has brought the issue to the fore.
  • Prakash Singh v. Union of India case: Mr. Prakash Singh served as DGP of UP Police and Assam Police, besides other postings. He filed a PIL in the Supreme Court post retirement, in 1996, seeking police reforms. In a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court in September 2006 directed all states and UTs to bring in police reforms. The ruling issued a series of measures that were to be undertaken by the governments. These were in line with ensuring that the police could do their work without worrying about any political interference.
  • Measures suggested in the Prakash Singh judgment: The main directive in the verdict was fixing the tenure and selection of the DGP (Director General of Police). This was to avoid situations where officers about to retire in a few months are given the post. In order to ensure no political interference, a minimum tenure was sought for the Inspector General of Police. This was to ensure that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians. The SC further directed postings of officers being done by Police Establishment Boards (PEB). The idea was to insulate powers of postings and transfers from political leaders. The PEBs comprise police officers and senior bureaucrats. Further, there was a recommendation of setting up State Police Complaints Authority (SPCA). This should work as a platform where common people aggrieved by police action could approach. Apart from this, the SC directed separation of investigation and law and order functions to better improve policing. It also suggested setting up of State Security Commissions (SSC) that would have members from civil society and forming a National Security Commission.
  • The implementation: Up till 2020, not even one state was fully compliant with the apex court directives. While 18 states passed or amended their Police Acts in this time, not one fully matches legislative models. Five contempt petitions were issued in the past decades to states found to be non-compliant. Bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and UP have been the worst when it comes to bringing about systemic changes in line with the judgement. It is only the North-Eastern states that have followed the suggested changes in spirit.
  • Maharashtra case: The government under former CM Devendra Fadnavis passed the Maharashtra Police (Amendment and Continuance) Act, 2014. This was meant to incorporate the changes suggested in the Prakash Singh judgment. However, recently too, there were allegations of rampant political interference in transfers. The state Acts were deliberately formulated in such a way that “it just gave legal garb to the status quo that existed before”. In the updated Maharashtra Police Act of 2014 too, a section 22(N)(2) had been added. This gave the CM special powers to transfer officers at any point in case of ‘administrative exigencies’. The SC directive was that an officer should not be transferred before the given tenure. But CMs have used this section for mid-term transfer thereby maintaining control on transfers.
  • How is the government interfering despite PEBs: The officers in the Police Establishment Boards (PEB) are ‘unofficially’ informed by the government about which officer would be preferred for which post. Either that or in meetings to decide postings of senior IPS officers, when even the Additional Chief Secretary (home) is present, the officers go with what the ACS Home says. Among the five officers in the PEB, even if one or two do not agree, the majority usually sides with the opinions of the government of the day. Thus, in spite of PEBs in place, the system has continued as before.
  • State Police Complaints Authority (SPCA): In January 2017, the SPCA was set up by the Maharashtra government, and it did receive several complaints at their office in Mumbai. But the SPCA was struggling to set up offices in rural areas. While the SPCA could recommend action against any officer found guilty, the decision on taking actions eventually rested with the government. Over the past years, the SPCA has also struggled due to lack of staff members.
  • Summary: Systemic changes are essential to protect the democratic structure of the country itself. The unholy nexus between the politicians, bureaucrats, police and criminals should be put an end to. Police administration should be restructured, giving it functional autonomy, and a robust criminal justice system must be built. The need of the hour is an all-India Act that all states have to follow. Small changes can be made in exceptional cases relating to the situation in a particular state.


  • [message]
    • 6. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Prelims, Various GS Papers)
Rare side-effects of Covid vaccines emerging
  • The story: As millions of jabs of various covid-19 vaccines are administered every day, rare adverse reactions will inevitably emerge. On April 7th, 2021, both Britain’s health officials and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), which regulates drugs in the European Union, said there is strong evidence that AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 vaccine may be linked with very rare blood clots, often in the brain or the abdomen.
  • Details: The EMA experts reached their conclusion based on a review of 86 reported cases, 18 of which were fatal. Britain’s experts reached the same conclusion from data on 79 cases, 19 of which were fatal. Both the EMA and Britain’s drug regulator concluded that the vaccine’s benefits outweigh the potential risk of the clots. But Britain’s officials, armed as usual with some nifty charts for their televised briefing, said that for people under 30 the risks and benefits from the vaccine were “finely balanced”, so a different jab may be preferable.
  1. The investigation of the suspected clots from the AstraZeneca jab has been a prime example of the challenge of sorting the signal of a vaccine’s side-effects from the cacophony of medical emergencies that happen to millions of people every day.
  2. Vaccine-safety experts have two ways to untangle whether a rare medical problem is caused by a vaccine, and can compare its rate in vaccinated people against the “background” rates of it that are observed in the unvaccinated. They can look for unusual features of the medical condition being investigated.
  • The first signals: The first signals emerged in late February 2021, when doctors in several European countries noticed clusters of blood clots in people recently given the AstraZeneca jab, some of whom died. Most were women under 60, which was not terribly surprising because many EU countries were, at first, not convinced that the jab worked in the elderly and used it largely for essential workers, such as nurses, teachers and social-care workers—professions in which most employees are women.
  1. The EMA’s data as of March 22nd suggested that the rate of brain clots in people under the age of 60 who had had Astra­Zeneca’s vaccine was one in 1,00,000, higher than would be expected normally.
  2. Precisely how much higher, though, is hard to tell. The rates of such rare and difficult-to-diagnose conditions vary a lot by country, age and sex. Estimates of the incidence of such brain clots have ranged from 0.22 to 1.57 cases per 100,000 people per year, and they are more common in younger people and women.
  3. As doctors began to look more closely, something curious emerged. Many patients with suspected clots from the vaccine had unusually low levels of platelets. These are fragments of special precursor cells that float in the blood. Their job is to form blood clots (they rush to the site of a cut or other bleeding). Low platelet levels therefore usually result in uncontrolled bleeding, not clots.
  4. With this new information to hand, Britain’s medical regulators searched their data on vaccinated people for the unusual tandem of clots and low platelet counts. They found four cases per million people vaccinated, a rate several times lower than in the EU. One explanation is that Britain, unlike the rest of Europe, had used the jab primarily in older people. The rate at which the clots occurred in Britain declined steadily with age. Importantly, Britain’s experts found that the clots occurred as much in men as they did in women.
  • Learning: This combination of blood clots and low platelet counts is something that doctors know how to diagnose and treat. It resembles a condition seen in some people who are given heparin, a drug used widely to treat blood clots. For unknown reasons, some people develop an immune reaction to heparin, which results in blood clotting so profound that it depletes their platelets. The same reaction appears to be provoked by the vaccine.
  • Summary: Medical societies in several countries have already issued guidelines to doctors on how to spot and treat this rare reaction to the AstraZeneca vaccine. With vigilance and appropriate care, the extremely rare deaths that may result from it will become even rarer.


  • [message]
    • 7. SOCIAL ISSUES (Prelims, GS Paper 2)
Food wastage
  • The story: Despite adequate food production, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation has reported that about 190 million Indians remain undernourished. Moreover, it states that every third malnourished child is Indian. Ironically, the same report highlights that around 40% of the food produced in India is either lost or wasted. It is further estimated that the value of food wastage in India is around ₹92,000 crores per annum.
  • Nature: This food wastage, however, isn’t limited to one level alone but perforates through every stage; from harvesting, processing, packaging, and transporting to the end stage of consumption. Though food wastage is a global problem, India stands a chance to convert this into an opportunity, if it can address it properly.
  • Case Study: SAFAL Outlet: On average, 18.7 kgs of food was disposed off by one Safal outlet daily. This suggests that an estimated 7.5 tonnes of food are discarded daily across the 400 Safal outlets in Delhi. Approximately 84.7% of the total food waste recorded was thrown in the bin, while the rest was either fed to the poor or some animals. A significant portion of the food waste bin was still in edible condition. If the edible food waste generated by Safal is diverted, an estimated 2000 people could be fed daily.
  • Challenge:
  1. Pre-Consumption losses - Nearly 40% of the food produced in India is wasted every year due to fragmented food systems and inefficient supply chains. This is the loss that occurs even before the food reaches the consumer.
  2. Food wastage in homes - There is also a significant amount of food waste generated in our homes. As per the Food Waste Index Report 2021, a staggering 50 kg of food is thrown away per person every year in Indian homes.
  3. Greenhouse Gases emissions - This excess food waste usually ends up in landfills, creating potent greenhouse gases which have dire environmental implications.
  4. Impact of pandemic - The Covid-19 pandemic not only exposed the problems of food waste but also compounded them. In the wake of the lockdown imposed last year, surplus stocks of grain — pegged at 65 lakh tonnes in the first four months of 2020 — continued to rot in godowns across India. Access to food became extremely scarce for the poor, especially daily-wage laborers.
  5. Supply-chain management issues - Some problems in the Indian food supply chain include inefficiency of government programs, lack of transparency in revenue generation, insufficient storage facilities, and lack of comprehensive and accurate inventories.
  • Summary: Food waste attributed to households and their irresponsible consumption patterns means that change needs to begin in our own homes. Calculated purchasing when buying groceries, minimizing single-use packaging wherever possible, ordering consciously from restaurants, and reconsidering extravagant buffet spreads at weddings can go a long way. Edible food should be made available every day, for free, at the latest in the last opening hour, so it can be picked up and consumed by those in need. The option of distribution through food banks can also be explored, as can tie-ups with private actors so that food can reach hunger hotspots. At the community level, one can identify and get involved with organizations such as Coimbatore-based No Food Waste which aims to redistribute excess food to feed the needy and hungry. In France, supermarkets prioritize the reduction, reuse, and recycling of extra food. It is important that technology is adopted at every stage of the supply chain to overcome this problem. Planning in the supply chain can improve with technology, reducing transit time in shipping and logistics. In addition, multiple government initiatives are also assisting in building infrastructure for the food industry.


    • [message]
      • 8. MISCELLANEOUS (Prelims, GS Paper 1, GS Paper 2)

    RBI Consumer Confidence Index
    • The story: The Reserve Bank of India recently released the report of Consumer Confidence Survey. The survey was conducted in major cities of the country over 5,000 respondents.
    • Learnings: The Consumer Confidence Index declined from 55.5 points in January 2021 to 53.1 points in March 2021. The Future Expectations dipped from 117.1 in January 2021 to 108.8 in March 2021. When the index measure is above 100, it signals optimism and while it is below 100, it represents pessimism. Most of the consumers reported higher overall expenditure. According to the survey, this scenario is to continue in the coming year despite the moderation in discretionary spending. The consumers expectation on general economic situation and employment situation for the year ahead was also pessimistic.
    • Consumer Confidence Survey: This Survey measures consumer perception on five economic variables such as employment, economic situation, price level, spending and income. The survey has two main indices namely current situation index and future expectations index. The future expectations index measures what consumer thinks about the change in an economic issue one year ahead. The current situation index measures the change in consumer perception over an economic issue in the last year. The Consumer Confidence Survey is conducted every two months by the Reserve Bank of India, to measure how pessimistic or optimistic the consumers are regarding their financial situation. The survey was conducted through telephonic interviews. It was conducted in major cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Patna, Thiruvananthapuram, Mumbai.


    G-sec acquisition programme – G-SAP 1.0
    • The story: In April 2021, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced India's first formal Q.E. programme - the Government Security Acquisition Programme, GSAP 1.0. The central bank will purchase government bonds worth Rs.1 trillion (one lakh crore rupees), with the first purchase of Rs 25,000 crore on April 15, 2021. This is similar to the US Federal Reserve's quantiative easing programme.
    • GSAP 1.0: It will provide more comfort to the bond market, as a calendar declared in advance gives comfort. As the borrowing of the Government increased in 2020-21, the RBI has to ensure there is no disruption in the Indian market. In fiscal 2021, the RBI had purchased Rs 3.13 trillion worth bonds from the secondary market. However, it was carried out in an ad hoc manner, leading to tension between bond market players and the central bank. Now, this new programme will help reduce the spread between repo rate and the ten-year government bond yield. It will also help to reduce aggregate cost of borrowing for the centre and states in fiscal year 2022.
    • Impact: The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) Sensex had fallen in February and March, 2021 due to rising bond yields. After RBI announced the GSAP, the ten-year G-Sec bond yield dropped by 0.6%. While the rise in bond yields led to weakness in the equity markets, with the yields now stabilizing, the FPI inflow into equities could regain momentum.
    • Government Securities: G-Secs are debt instruments issued by GoI to borrow money to fund its fiscal deficit. There are two types viz., short-term instruments that mature in 91 days and long-term instruments that mature anywhere between five years and forty years.


    The Jordan crisis 2021
    • The story: Jordan is a unitary state that is ruled under a 'Constitutional Monarchy'. A unitary state is one governed as a single entity where the central government is ultimately supreme. In a constitutional monarchy, a monarch (ruler or king) exercises authority in accordance to a written or unwritten constitution.
    • The 2021 crisis: The former crown prince Hamzah bin Hussein was placed under de facto house arrest. He is the half-brother of the King Abdullah, and was accused of undermining national security. This was because he attended the meetings with tribal leaders that openly criticized the ruling monarch. According to Jordanian Government, there had been an attempt for a political coup to destabilize the country. The Government also says that foreign entities also attended the meeting.
    • Stability in Jordan: The nation was created after the first world war, and remained stable for decades in a part of the world that is prone to conflict and political uncertainty. According to the Gulf and Western countries, Jordan is a strategic partner that can be relied upon for further political objectives in the region. The support of Jordanian intelligence is highly important to fight against terrorism in the region. The conflicts in the region include Syrian crisis, Israel-Palestine conflict, etc. Jordan has served as a good host to the refugees from the war prone zones. Today refugees make up half of population of Jordan. During 2003 US invasion of Iraq, Jordan had welcomed refugees from Iraq. It currently hosts 10 lakh refugees from Syria. Jordan is highly important for the future peace deals between Israel and Palestine.
    • Details of foreign relations: Initially Jordan maintained close relations with the US and also with the Sunni Muslim powers of UAE and Saudi Arabia. They together resisted the Shias of Iran. In 1994, Jordan signed a peace deal with Israel and since then the two countries maintain diplomatic relations. However, friction began after the Saudi-UAE’s blockade of Qatar in 2017. Saudi and UAE moved to punish Qatar for its ties with 'extremist' groups. Jordan too downgraded its relations with Qatar. However, it maintained cordial terms with Qatar. It even accepted financial assistance from Qatar. This created tensions between Jordan and Saudi Arabia and its allies in the region. Jordan also faced criticisms for maintaining strong ties with Turkey. It disagreed to back Syrian crisis along with UAE and Saudi Arabia. Later Jordan ended up in trouble after being exposed for munitions support for Libyan strongman Khalifa Haftar. After UAE normalized its relations with Israel, the role of Jordan as the Interlocutor of the region has diminished. (Interlocutor - who takes part in a dialogue or conversation)


    S Ramann: New Chairman and Managing Director of SIDBI
    • The story: In April 2021, the Government of India appointed S Ramann as the Chairman and Managing Director of Small Industries and Development Bank of India. The appointment is for a period of three years. The name of the new Chairman and Managing Director was recommended by Banks Board Bureau. S Ramann is currently the CEO of National E-Governance Services Limited. The National E-Governance is the first Information Utility of India. He is a 1991 batch Indian Audit and Accounts Service Officer.
    • Banks Board Bureau: It is an autonomous body of Government of India. It is an advisory body, tasked to improve governance of Public sector banks. The Banks Board Bureau recommends selection of chiefs of government owned banks and financial institutions. It assists banks with the strategies to deal with non-performing assets and bad loans, and recommends the top level appointments of financial institutions (includes non-banking) to the GoI. The Banks Board Bureau was set up in 2016, and works towards reforms in Public Sector Banks as recommended by P J Nayak Committee.
    • P J Nayak Committee: The Committee was set up in 2014 by the Reserve Bank of India. The committee reviewed the governance of board of banks. The recommendations made by the committee included repealing the Bank Nationalisation Act, 1970, SBI Subsidiaries Act and the SBI Act. This was recommended as these acts required the Government to have above 50% shares in the banks. It said that after repealing these acts, the GoI should set up Bank Investment Company (BIC). The shares of the Government in the banks should be transferred to the BIC.


    9.1 Today's best editorials to read
    • We offer you 7 excellent editorials from across 10 newspapers we have scanned. 

    • [message]
      • SECTION 3 - MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions)

    Solve the online quiz given, right now. Check scores, and relative performance!



    01-01-2020,1,04-08-2021,1,05-08-2021,1,06-08-2021,1,28-06-2021,1,Abrahamic religions,6,Afganistan,1,Afghanistan,35,Afghanitan,1,Afghansitan,1,Africa,2,Agri tech,2,Agriculture,150,Ancient and Medieval History,51,Ancient History,4,Ancient sciences,1,April 2020,25,April 2021,22,Architecture and Literature of India,11,Armed forces,1,Art Culture and Literature,1,Art Culture Entertainment,2,Art Culture Languages,3,Art Culture Literature,10,Art Literature Entertainment,1,Artforms and Artists,1,Article 370,1,Arts,11,Athletes and Sportspersons,2,August 2020,24,August 2021,239,August-2021,3,Authorities and Commissions,4,Aviation,3,Awards and Honours,26,Awards and HonoursHuman Rights,1,Banking,1,Banking credit finance,13,Banking-credit-finance,19,Basic of Comprehension,2,Best Editorials,4,Biodiversity,46,Biotechnology,47,Biotechology,1,Centre State relations,19,CentreState relations,1,China,81,Citizenship and immigration,24,Civils Tapasya - English,92,Climage Change,3,Climate and weather,44,Climate change,60,Climate Chantge,1,Colonialism and imperialism,3,Commission and Authorities,1,Commissions and Authorities,27,Constitution and Law,467,Constitution and laws,1,Constitutional and statutory roles,19,Constitutional issues,128,Constitutonal Issues,1,Cooperative,1,Cooperative Federalism,10,Coronavirus variants,7,Corporates,3,Corporates Infrastructure,1,Corporations,1,Corruption and transparency,16,Costitutional issues,1,Covid,104,Covid Pandemic,1,COVID VIRUS NEW STRAIN DEC 2020,1,Crimes against women,15,Crops,10,Cryptocurrencies,2,Cryptocurrency,7,Crytocurrency,1,Currencies,5,Daily Current Affairs,453,Daily MCQ,32,Daily MCQ Practice,573,Daily MCQ Practice - 01-01-2022,1,Daily MCQ Practice - 17-03-2020,1,DCA-CS,286,December 2020,26,Decision Making,2,Defence and Militar,2,Defence and Military,281,Defence forces,9,Demography and Prosperity,36,Demonetisation,2,Destitution and poverty,7,Discoveries and Inventions,8,Discovery and Inventions,1,Disoveries and Inventions,1,Eastern religions,2,Economic & Social Development,2,Economic Bodies,1,Economic treaties,5,Ecosystems,3,Education,119,Education and employment,5,Educational institutions,3,Elections,37,Elections in India,16,Energy,134,Energy laws,3,English Comprehension,3,Entertainment Games and Sport,1,Entertainment Games and Sports,33,Entertainment Games and Sports – Athletes and sportspersons,1,Entrepreneurship and startups,1,Entrepreneurships and startups,1,Enviroment and Ecology,2,Environment and Ecology,228,Environment destruction,1,Environment Ecology and Climage Change,1,Environment Ecology and Climate Change,458,Environment Ecology Climate Change,5,Environment protection,12,Environmental protection,1,Essay paper,643,Ethics and Values,26,EU,27,Europe,1,Europeans in India and important personalities,6,Evolution,4,Facts and Charts,4,Facts and numbers,1,Features of Indian economy,31,February 2020,25,February 2021,23,Federalism,2,Flora and fauna,6,Foreign affairs,507,Foreign exchange,9,Formal and informal economy,13,Fossil fuels,14,Fundamentals of the Indian Economy,10,Games SportsEntertainment,1,GDP GNP PPP etc,12,GDP-GNP PPP etc,1,GDP-GNP-PPP etc,20,Gender inequality,9,Geography,10,Geography and Geology,2,Global trade,22,Global treaties,2,Global warming,146,Goverment decisions,4,Governance and Institution,2,Governance and Institutions,773,Governance and Schemes,221,Governane and Institutions,1,Government decisions,226,Government Finances,2,Government Politics,1,Government schemes,358,GS I,93,GS II,66,GS III,38,GS IV,23,GST,8,Habitat destruction,5,Headlines,22,Health and medicine,1,Health and medicine,56,Healtha and Medicine,1,Healthcare,1,Healthcare and Medicine,98,Higher education,12,Hindu individual editorials,54,Hinduism,9,History,216,Honours and Awards,1,Human rights,249,IMF-WB-WTO-WHO-UNSC etc,2,Immigration,6,Immigration and citizenship,1,Important Concepts,68,Important Concepts.UPSC Mains GS III,3,Important Dates,1,Important Days,35,Important exam concepts,11,Inda,1,India,29,India Agriculture and related issues,1,India Economy,1,India's Constitution,14,India's independence struggle,19,India's international relations,4,India’s international relations,7,Indian Agriculture and related issues,9,Indian and world media,5,Indian Economy,1248,Indian Economy – Banking credit finance,1,Indian Economy – Corporates,1,Indian Economy.GDP-GNP-PPP etc,1,Indian Geography,1,Indian history,33,Indian judiciary,119,Indian Politcs,1,Indian Politics,637,Indian Politics – Post-independence India,1,Indian Polity,1,Indian Polity and Governance,2,Indian Society,1,Indias,1,Indias international affairs,1,Indias international relations,30,Indices and Statistics,98,Indices and Statstics,1,Industries and services,32,Industry and services,1,Inequalities,2,Inequality,103,Inflation,33,Infra projects and financing,6,Infrastructure,252,Infrastruture,1,Institutions,1,Institutions and bodies,267,Institutions and bodies Panchayati Raj,1,Institutionsandbodies,1,Instiutions and Bodies,1,Intelligence and security,1,International Institutions,10,international relations,2,Internet,11,Inventions and discoveries,10,Irrigation Agriculture Crops,1,Issues on Environmental Ecology,3,IT and Computers,23,Italy,1,January 2020,26,January 2021,25,July 2020,5,July 2021,207,June,1,June 2020,45,June 2021,369,June-2021,1,Juridprudence,2,Jurisprudence,91,Jurisprudence Governance and Institutions,1,Land reforms and productivity,15,Latest Current Affairs,1136,Law and order,45,Legislature,1,Logical Reasoning,9,Major events in World History,16,March 2020,24,March 2021,23,Markets,182,Maths Theory Booklet,14,May 2020,24,May 2021,25,Meetings and Summits,27,Mercantilism,1,Military and defence alliances,5,Military technology,8,Miscellaneous,454,Modern History,15,Modern historym,1,Modern technologies,42,Monetary and financial policies,20,monsoon and climate change,1,Myanmar,1,Nanotechnology,2,Nationalism and protectionism,17,Natural disasters,13,New Laws and amendments,57,News media,3,November 2020,22,Nuclear technology,11,Nuclear techology,1,Nuclear weapons,10,October 2020,24,Oil economies,1,Organisations and treaties,1,Organizations and treaties,2,Pakistan,2,Panchayati Raj,1,Pandemic,137,Parks reserves sanctuaries,1,Parliament and Assemblies,18,People and Persoalities,1,People and Persoanalities,2,People and Personalites,1,People and Personalities,189,Personalities,46,Persons and achievements,1,Pillars of science,1,Planning and management,1,Political bodies,2,Political parties and leaders,26,Political philosophies,23,Political treaties,3,Polity,485,Pollution,62,Post independence India,21,Post-Governance in India,17,post-Independence India,46,Post-independent India,1,Poverty,46,Poverty and hunger,1,Prelims,2054,Prelims CSAT,30,Prelims GS I,7,Prelims Paper I,189,Primary and middle education,10,Private bodies,1,Products and innovations,7,Professional sports,1,Protectionism and Nationalism,26,Racism,1,Rainfall,1,Rainfall and Monsoon,5,RBI,73,Reformers,3,Regional conflicts,1,Regional Conflicts,79,Regional Economy,16,Regional leaders,43,Regional leaders.UPSC Mains GS II,1,Regional Politics,149,Regional Politics – Regional leaders,1,Regionalism and nationalism,1,Regulator bodies,1,Regulatory bodies,63,Religion,44,Religion – Hinduism,1,Renewable energy,4,Reports,102,Reports and Rankings,119,Reservations and affirmative,1,Reservations and affirmative action,42,Revolutionaries,1,Rights and duties,12,Roads and Railways,5,Russia,3,schemes,1,Science and Techmology,1,Science and Technlogy,1,Science and Technology,819,Science and Tehcnology,1,Sciene and Technology,1,Scientists and thinkers,1,Separatism and insurgencies,2,September 2020,26,September 2021,444,SociaI Issues,1,Social Issue,2,Social issues,1308,Social media,3,South Asia,10,Space technology,70,Startups and entrepreneurship,1,Statistics,7,Study material,280,Super powers,7,Super-powers,24,TAP 2020-21 Sessions,3,Taxation,39,Taxation and revenues,23,Technology and environmental issues in India,16,Telecom,3,Terroris,1,Terrorism,103,Terrorist organisations and leaders,1,Terrorist acts,10,Terrorist acts and leaders,1,Terrorist organisations and leaders,14,Terrorist organizations and leaders,1,The Hindu editorials analysis,58,Tournaments,1,Tournaments and competitions,5,Trade barriers,3,Trade blocs,2,Treaties and Alliances,1,Treaties and Protocols,43,Trivia and Miscalleneous,1,Trivia and miscellaneous,43,UK,1,UN,114,Union budget,20,United Nations,6,UPSC Mains GS I,584,UPSC Mains GS II,3969,UPSC Mains GS III,3071,UPSC Mains GS IV,191,US,63,USA,3,Warfare,20,World and Indian Geography,24,World Economy,404,World figures,39,World Geography,23,World History,21,World Poilitics,1,World Politics,612,World Politics.UPSC Mains GS II,1,WTO,1,WTO and regional pacts,4,अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संस्थाएं,10,गणित सिद्धान्त पुस्तिका,13,तार्किक कौशल,10,निर्णय क्षमता,2,नैतिकता और मौलिकता,24,प्रौद्योगिकी पर्यावरण मुद्दे,15,बोधगम्यता के मूल तत्व,2,भारत का प्राचीन एवं मध्यकालीन इतिहास,47,भारत का स्वतंत्रता संघर्ष,19,भारत में कला वास्तुकला एवं साहित्य,11,भारत में शासन,18,भारतीय कृषि एवं संबंधित मुद्दें,10,भारतीय संविधान,14,महत्वपूर्ण हस्तियां,6,यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा,91,यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा जीएस,117,यूरोपीय,6,विश्व इतिहास की मुख्य घटनाएं,16,विश्व एवं भारतीय भूगोल,24,स्टडी मटेरियल,266,स्वतंत्रता-पश्चात् भारत,15,
    PT's IAS Academy: Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 08-04-2021
    Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 08-04-2021
    Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 08-04-2021
    PT's IAS Academy
    Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow TO READ FULL BODHI... Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy