Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 04-03-2021


Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 04-03-2021


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  1. Governance and Institutions - Haryana job reservation for locals - The Haryana government approved a bill in March first week that will give 75% reservation in the private sector jobs to only the locals of the state. The reservation will be applicable for jobs with a salary of up to Rs.50,000 per month. In case the company is not able to find a suitable candidate, as per the clause they can hire from outside and must inform the government. Companies have expressed grave concerns about this, stating that they hire for capability and not domicile. Also, in this age of 'work from home', it is not possible to adhere to such norms. Media reports indicated that many I.T. firms may choose to relocate from the state, if this is enforced rigorously, due to the sheer implementation headaches. States are struggling to create jobs, and such laws seem a knee-jerk reaction to keep locals in good humour, but may backfire eventually.
  2. Constitution and Law - Hong Kong makes 100th arrest under new law - The Hong Kong Police on 03-03-2021 said that 100 people had been arrested under a national security law that was imposed in the former British colony by China in 2020. The accused include 83 male suspects and 17 female suspects, between the ages of 16 and 79, they added. The police didn't give details about the latest person to be arrested. China has reneged on its promise of "One Country, Two Systems" by ending the democratic poltics of Hong Kong, via the new law. It has clamped down heavily in 2021, forcing democracy protestors to either flee the city, or go silent, or be arrested. The CEO of Hong Kong is appointed by the mainland communists.
  3. World Economy - Bitcoin rallies again above $50,000, recovers - Bitcoin on 03-03-2021 rallied above $50,000, recovering from the previous week's selloff when its prices plunged 21% due to multiple factors. The cryptocurrency was up 8% and was trading at $51,500. Earlier, Bitcoin had dipped after US President Joe Biden's nominee for SEC Chairman Gary Gensler called for the regulation of the cryptocurrency market. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen too had cautioned investors about the bitcoin mania. India is on the verge of enacting new laws to completely banish cryptocurrencies from the country, and various agencies have expressed grave concerns on the potential of misuse. China's province of Inner Mongolia too has taken harsh steps against the Bitcoin exchanges recently.
  4. Governance and Institutions - Global Bio-India-2021 - The Union Minister for Health & Family Welfare inaugurated the second edition of Global Bio-India-2021 in New Delhi through virtual mode. It showcases the strength and opportunities of India's biotechnology sector at national level and to the global community. The minister unveiled the “National Biotech Strategy” and also inaugurated the Virtual Exhibition of Global Bio-India at the occasion. It is a mega international congregation of Biotechnology, with stakeholders including international bodies, regulatory bodies, Central and State Ministries, SMEs, large industries, bioclusters, research institutes, investors, and the startup ecosystem. It aims at facilitating the recognition of India as an emerging Innovation Hub and the bio-manufacturing hub globally. India was ranked 48th in the Global Innovation Index Report 2020.
  5. Environment and Ecology - NDC Synthesis Report: UNFCCC - The UNFCCC, in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) Synthesis Report, has called for more ambitious climate action plans by the countries in order to achieve the Paris Agreement target of containing global temperature rise to 2°C (ideally 1.5°C) by the end of the century. The report was sought ahead of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 26) to the UNFCCC which is scheduled to take place from 1st-12th November 2021, in Glasgow, UK. NDCs are at the heart of the Paris Agreement and embody efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. Each NDC reflects the country’s ambition, taking into account its domestic circumstances and capabilities. Recently, the US too had urged nations to not talk about 2050 or 2060, but 2030, and what they can commit for it.
  6. Defence and Military - Exercise Desert Flag-VI: UAE - For the first time, the Indian Air Force (IAF) is participating in the Exercise Desert Flag-VI, hosted by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Air Force. Ex Desert Flag is an annual multinational large force employment warfare exercise hosted by the UAE Air Force. Aim is to provide operational exposure to the participating forces while training them to undertake simulated air combat operations in a controlled environment. It isbout a three week long exercise scheduled from 3rd - 27th March 2021 at Al-Dhafra air base, UAE. The air forces of the UAE, India, United States of America, France, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Bahrain are the participants. The IAF is participating with six Su-30 MKI, two C-17 Globemasters and one IL-78 tanker aircraft. The Indian Air Force has a fleet of 11 C-17 Globemaster IIIs. Boeing has also established an in-country C-17 simulator training center which has completed thousands of training hours for aircrews and loadmasters.
  7. World Politics - US lawmaker introduces bill to sanction Saudi Crown Prince for Jamal Khashoggi's murder - US lawmaker Ilhan Omar introduced a bill on March 2, 2021 to sanction Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman for his involvement in the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. This comes after a US intelligence report implicated the Saudi Crown for approving the operation to capture or kill Khashoggi. Ilhan Omar, a Democrat from Minnesota said in a statement that this is a test of our humanity. She urged that if the United States of America truly supports freedom of expression, democracy and human rights, there is no reason not to sanction Mohammed bin Salman, a man that our own intelligence found to have approved the murder of US resident and Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
  8. Governance and Institutions - India to provide 1 lakh HCQ tablets, 1,000 metric tonnes rice to drought-hit Madagascar - The Indian Naval Ship Jalashwa will leave with medical assistance and food on March 3 for drought-hit Madagascar in East Africa. The Government of India announced on March 1, 2021, that it will send a consignment of 1 lakh tablets of Hydroxychloroquine and 1,000 metric tonnes of rice to drought-hit Madagascar in East Africa. The humanitarian assistance by India will be delivered onboard the Indian Naval Ship Jalashwa. The naval ship will leave with medical assistance and food on March 3 and is expected to reach Madagascar’s Port of Ehoala between March 21 and 24. The news of the Indian assistance was conveyed to the Madagascar government on March 1 during a phone call between the External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar and Tehindrazanarivelo Djacoba A.S. Oliv, his Madagascar counterpart.  
  9. Constitution and Law - Cheque bounce cases a big headache - The Supreme Court has asked the Centre to consider establishing additional courts to hear cheque bounce cases. A 3-judge SC bench, led by the CJI, observed that cheque bounce cases have become a huge problem as they constitute 30-40% of pending litigation. The bench also proposed the formation of an inter-ministerial committee to devise solutions for this issue. A statement released by Ministry of Finance on 8th June, 2020 had proposed to decriminalize a number of economic offences and one was under Sec 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 for dishonour of cheque. Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 governs cheque bounce matters due to insufficiency of funds in the bank account. The provision provides that any person who has committed an offence under Section 138 the offence shall be imprisoned for a term which may extend up to 2 years or with fine which may extend to twice the amount of the cheque amount, or with both. The section is one of the most common provisions invoked by lender in the event of default due to dishonor of cheque.
  10. Indian Economy - Money laundering case against Franklin Templeton - The Enforcement Directorate (ED) registered a money laundering case against Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund, which shut six debt funds in April 2020, and its senior officials. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) also issued show-cause notices to Franklin and its key personnel for allegedly redeeming their investments days before the closure announcement. Franklin Templeton India has been at the centre of controversy due to its decision to shut down six debt funds in April 2020 due to liquidity constraints in the bond market. The six debt schemes of Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund with assets of around ?26,000 crore were frozen on 23 April, 2020 after they faced unprecedented redemptions. The schemes were known to invest in relatively risky debt to get high returns.
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    • 1. ECONOMY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper)
Sagarmala is dead, New maritime vision being created 
  • A huge story, finished: Sagarmala was the flagship programme of Modi govt. 1.0, that could not take off due to many constraints. All assumptions and projections on trade that formed the basis for Sagarmala were decimated due to the slowdown, de-globalisation, and finally, the pandemic. Hence, a new ‘Maritime Vision 2030’ was developed. Some 605 projects costing over Rs 8.78 lakh crore were identified for implementation under the Sagarmala programme in phases.
  • A new vision: Now, the 'Maritime India Summit 2021' was organised by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways in March 2021.
  1. Focus Area: To further the port-led development along the 7,516-km long coastline. India will invest USD 82 billion in port projects by 2035 (under Sagarmala Programme), raise the share of clean renewable energy sources in the maritime sector, develop waterways and boost tourism around lighthouses. India aims to operationalise 23 waterways by 2030. Through the focus areas of upgradation of infrastructure, India aims to strengthen the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  2. Current status of Indian Ports: India has 12 major ports and several minor ports along its West and East coast. Capacity of major ports have increased from 870 million tonnes in 2014 to 1550 million tonnes in 2021. Indian ports have measures such as: Direct port Delivery, Direct Port Entry and an upgraded Port Community System (PCS) for easy data flow that has helped in reduced waiting time for inbound and outbound cargo.
  3. Significance: It will help in growth of the maritime sector and promote India as a leading Blue Economy of the world. Further the Maritime India Vision 2030.
  • Other initiatives for Port Development:
  1. Sagar-Manthan Mercantile Marine Domain Awareness Centre has been launched. It is an information system for enhancing maritime safety, search and rescue capabilities, security and marine environment protection.
  2. Ship repair clusters will be developed along both coasts by 2022. Domestic ship recycling industry will also be promoted to create 'Wealth from Waste'. India has enacted Recycling of Ships Act, 2019 and agreed to the Hong Kong International Convention.
  3. India aims to increase usage of renewable energy to more than 60% of total energy by 2030 across Indian ports.
  • Sagarmala Programme: The programme was approved by the Union Cabinet in 2015 aiming at holistic port infrastructure development along the 7,516-km long coastline through modernisation, mechanisation and computerisation. Under this port-led development framework, the government had hoped to increase its cargo traffic three-fold. It included the establishment of rail/road linkages with the port terminals, thus providing last-mile connectivity to ports; development of linkages with new regions, enhanced multi-modal connectivity including rail, inland water, coastal and road services. It encompassed port modernization and new port development, port connectivity, enhancement port-linked industrialisation, coastal community development, promotion of coastal shipping and inland waterways, job creation and bridging skill gap in ports and maritime sector. The Government had also set up the Sagarmala Development Company Limited (SDCL) in 2016 to provide equity support for the project Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) set up by the Ports / State / Central Ministries.
  • Knowledge centre -
  1. Global maritime trade - Maritime trade involves the transport of goods through the sea, using ships. Because of the risk involved in such kind of transport, the contracts related to this have some specific regulation, which evolved from customs and regulation from ancient times. Maritime shipping is the fundamental part of world trade. Around 80 per cent of global trade by volume and over 70 per cent of global trade by value are carried by sea. Of the 11.1 billion tons shipped internationally in 2019, 7.9 billion tons were dry cargo. (Dry cargo ships are used to carry solid dry goods that have a higher tolerance to heat and cold, such as metal ores, coal, steel products, forest products, and grains)
  2. India's coastline - India has a coastline of 7516.6 km, of which 5422.6 km is mainland coastline and 1197 km is Indian islands. Indian coastline touches nine states: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal and two union territories (Daman and Diu & DNH, and Puducherry). The islands of Andaman and Nicobar had the longest coastline in India, amounting to a little over 1,900 kilometers, followed by Gujarat.

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    • 2. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper
Forest landscape restoration - Paris Climate Agreement 
  • India's commitment on forests: In the United Nations Biodiversity Summit held on October 1 2020 Environment Minister reiterated India’s commitment to restore 26 million hectares of land by 2030.
  • The pledge: Forest landscape restoration is a process of restoring the  ecological integrity , improving the productivity and economic value of degraded forest landscapes. The Article 5 in the 2015 Paris Agreement urges countries to act on deforestation and forest degradation for enhancing sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases.
  1. The Government of Germany and IUCN  launched  voluntary Bonn Challenge in 2011 with the target of restore 150 mha of degraded and deforested landscapes by 2020 and 350 mha by 2030.
  2. India joined the Bonn Challenge in 2015 with a pledge to restore 21 mha of degraded and deforested land & raised it to 26 mha by 2030.
  3. India’s NDC targets to create  an additional carbon sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent from additional forest and tree cover until 2030.
  • Ambiguities in implementing FLR: There are no proper standard documents to arrive at common definitions, figures and methods on FLR in India. The Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas (2016) by Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, says almost  96.4 m ha of India’s geographical area are undergoing the process of desertification/land degradation. The Forest Survey of India’s (FSI) reports identifies 63 m ha of potential areas for restoration. However, remote sensing-based area delineation can only point towards potential areas for FLR. Another concern is around establishing a baseline for FLR - whether 2011, the year when the Bonn Challenge was launched or 2015 when India made the Bonn Challenge pledge should be considered.
  • Bonn Challenge: The Bonn Challenge Consultative Committee is constituted to guide the progress and achievements in respect of commitments under the Bonn Challenge.
  • How to effectively implement FLR initiatives: There is a need for monitoring and reporting with correct data by utilising existing national monitoring frameworks(Green India Mission ) to benefit from restoration. The Existing Institutions - Joint Forest Management, the Forest Protection Committee, Van Panchayats and Gram Sabhas - should bring stakeholders together. To ensure permanent restoration, stakeholders participation and sharing of responsibilities are required.
  • Three objectives of restoration: First, managing forests for water which includes enhancing groundwater recharge as well as maintaining surface flows and sub-surface flow in rivers and springs. Second, ensuring carbon sink creation. Third, managing forests to ensure livelihood and sustenance of millions of people dependent on forest. These three are necessary for India to achieve forest related national and international commitments.
  • Knowledge centre:
  1. Paris Climate Agreement - The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.
  2. UNFCCC - One of the three Rio Conventions, the UNFCCC's ultimate objective is to achieve the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous inteference with the climate system. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international environmental treaty signed by 154 states at the Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992.
  3. Bonn Challenge - The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to restore 150 million hectares of the world's degraded and deforested lands by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030. The Bonn challenge will address the issue of economic security, water security, food security and climate change.
  4. Forest Survey of India report - The report is published by the Forest Survey of India (FSI), mandated to assess the forest and tree resources of the country including wall-to-wall forest cover mapping in a biennial cycle.


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    • 3. FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper)

Turkey's Erdogan abandons the Xinjiang Uyghurs 
  • Turkey goes silent: It’s been many years since Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan visited Xinjiang, the 'autonomous' territory inhabited by Uyghur Muslims living under strict Chinese control. In 2009, Erdogan had called Chinese repression of Uyghurs a “genocide,” drawing China's anger, but cementing his reputation as a defiant Muslim leader willing to speak truth to totalitarian power. But as Turkey grew economically dependent on Beijing, he is no longer offering a safe haven or defending Uyghur rights.
  • Crushing them: Eight years seems like a lifetime given how much the Chinese Communist Party has encroached on Uyghur rights in just about every aspect of life. By now, much of the world has heard of the millions of Uyghurs being rounded up into concentration camps in Xinjiang. China says the interned are being cleansed of extremism and taught how to be good citizens! They’re free to leave whenever they like. Many ex-inmates inform that these camps are nothing but prisons that enable ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide.
  • Earlier days: Uyghur repression didn’t start with the camps. Even when Erdogan was in Xinjiang, many Uyghurs were trying to get out. They saw Erdogan’s visit as a gesture of solidarity. The Uyghurs are an ethnically Turkic people, and language is closely related to Turkish. So moving to Turkey made sense, especially considering how the country offered Uyghurs asylum as early as 1952. A good idea in 2012 has turned out to be a false hope. Erdogan’s authoritarian efforts to keep power in Turkey by muzzling the free press and locking up dissidents have made him an uneasy ally for liberal democracies. This often translates into changing Ankara’s policy toward Turkey’s 35,000 Uyghurs, from offering a safe haven to imposing downright repression.
  • Uyghurs in Turkey: Most Uyghurs have found it much harder to get resident permits or citizenship after 2014. They can’t make a living but risk being interned if they go back to Xinjiang. China also refused to renew their passports. Gradually, a Turkish government that was supposed to offer them freedom is now raiding Uyghur homes, arresting hundreds of people, and coordinating deportations with Beijing.
  • Turkish repression: Some Uyghur refugees whose families were lucky enough to get residential status in Turkey, were suddenly detained. They were mysteriously deemed illegal migrants from Tajikistan and sent back to China. This kind of treatment has become routine for Uyghurs in Turkey, who now live in fear of further persecution. This is happening as Turkey shifts away from its NATO allies and toward Russia and China. China just ratified an extradition agreement with Turkey in what it calls a counterterrorism partnership. Erdogan has plenty of allies in this new status quo.
  • Knowledge centre -
  1. Xinjiang province - Known to the Chinese as Xiyu (“Western Regions”) for centuries, the area became Xinjiang (“New Borders”) upon its annexation under the Qing (Manchu) dynasty in the 18th century. Westerners long called it Chinese Turkistan to distinguish it from Russian Turkistan. The Uyghurs are Turkic-speaking Muslims from the Central Asian region. The largest population live in China's autonomous Xinjiang region, in the country's north-west.
  2. Recep Tayyip Erdogan - Erdogan has taken Turkey away from its secular, liberal leanings to a more strident Islamist demeanour. As the General Chairman of the AK Party, won a victory during the parliamentary elections held on July 22, 2007 and established the 60th government of the Republic of Turkey by winning 46.6 % of the votes and received the vote of confidence. Erdogan, winning 49 % of the votes, arose triumphant at the end of the parliamentary elections held on June 12, 2011 and established the 61st government. Elected the 12th President on August 10, 2014, Recep Tayyip Erdogan is also the first President of the Republic of Turkey elected by popular vote. Mr. Erdogan was sworn in on July 9, 2018 as the first President of the Presidential System of Government, which Turkey switched to following the constitutional amendment that was adopted in the referendum on April 16, 2017.
  3. Republic of Turkey - The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara. The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage. Islam in Turkey dates back to the 8th century, when Turkic tribes fought alongside Arab Muslims against Chinese forces at the Battle of Talas in 751 A.D. Spurred by the influence of ruling dynasties, many people converted to Islam over the next few centuries. Its population is 8.3 cr, and GDP (2020) $ 0.6 trillion.

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    • 4. GOVERNMENT SCHEMES (Prelims, GS Paper 2, Essay paper)

Ghar Tak Fibre Scheme: Bihar 
  • Ghar Tak Fibre Scheme: It aims to connect all 45,945 villages of Bihar with high-speed optical fibre internet by 31st March 2021. Under it, Bihar has to provide at least five fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) connections per village and at least one WiFi hotspot per village. The Scheme will be implemented by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • Benefits: The Scheme will lead digital services including e-Education, e-Agriculture, Tele-Medicine, Tele-law and other social security schemes in Bihar ensuring easy access to all state natives. It is also likely to boost the local employment generation with the implementation of Bharat Net initiative which will be done by recruiting local workers.
  • Internet Penetration in Bihar: According to TRAI’s report, only 30.35% Bihar’s population has internet connectivity, much below India's population connectivity of 55%. Only 22.61% of the rural Bihar have an internet connection. Compared to this Kerala has 98.10% rural internet connectivity. Bihar also has the lowest urban internet subscribers amounting to 73.26% of the urban population. States like Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal all have an urban subscriber base above 90%. However, of the 8,745 gram panchayat (GP) in Bihar, almost all are connected to the state’s main internet grid under BharatNet Project.
  1. BharatNet, a special purpose vehicle envisaged in 2011, was an ambitious plan to connect all the 2,50,000 gram panchayats through a high-speed optical network.
  2. Initially it was launched as National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN), it was renamed as BharatNet Project in 2015.
  3. Under the BharatNet Project a village or a gram panchayat (GP) is considered ‘lit up’ when it consistently has internet connection and users at the end to verify the same.
  • Challenges: Of all the GPs of Bihar connected under phase one, 3,591 gram panchayats are non-operational, while the status of another 200 is unclear. The main problems are lack of power and related equipment failure, equipment theft, and faulty fibre. While optical fibre cable has been laid to connect nearly all the GPs, lack of users in these areas has resulted in minimal or zero follow-ups on repair and maintenance work.
  • Way forward: The Ghar Tak Fibre scheme marks a step towards the prime minister’s announcement on 15th August 2020, that all six lakh villages in India will be connected with optical fibre internet in the next 1,000 days (by 2024). India’s telecom sector has come a long way through the adoption of mobile technologies. However, for India to emerge as a dominant digital economy, the government needs to prioritize achievable targets and ensure the implementation of the initiatives.
  • Knowledge centre -
  1. Panchayats in India - The modern Panchayati raj system was formalized and introduced in India in April 1993 as the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution. Panchayati Raj (Council of five officials) is the system of local self-government of villages in India that consists of the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) through which the self-government of villages is realized. Balvant Rai Mehta also known as "second chief minister" of "Gujarat" is known as the "father of Panchayati Raj" in "India". Panchayati Raj acts as a form of decentralization bringing the power closer to the people and keeping a check on the decision makers, the government by ensuring effective accountability.
  2. Optical fibre - The optical fibre is a device which works on the principle of total internal reflection by which light signals can be transmitted from one place to another with a negligible loss of energy. Charles Kuen Kao is known as the “father of fiber optic communications” for his discovery in the 1960s of certain physical properties of glass, which laid the groundwork for high-speed data communication in the Information Age.

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    • 5. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION (Prelims, GS Paper 2, GS Paper 3)
Lok Adalat
  • What it means: The term ‘Lok Adalat’ means ‘People’s Court’ and is based on Gandhian principles. As per the Supreme Court, it is an old form of adjudicating system prevailed in ancient India and its validity has not been taken away even in the modern days too. It is one of the components of the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) system and delivers informal, cheap and expeditious justice to the common people.
  • History: The first Lok Adalat camp was organised in Gujarat in 1982 as a voluntary and conciliatory agency without any statutory backing for its decisions. In view of its growing popularity over time, it was given statutory status under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987. The Act makes the provisions relating to the organisation and functioning of the Lok Adalats.
  • Organisation: The State/District Legal Services Authority or the Supreme Court/High Court/Taluk Legal Services Committee may organise Lok Adalats at such intervals and places and for exercising such jurisdiction and for such areas as it thinks fit.
  1. Every Lok Adalat organised for an area shall consist of such number of serving or retired judicial officers and other persons of the area as may be specified by the agency organising.
  2. Generally, a Lok Adalat consists of a judicial officer as the chairman and a lawyer (advocate) and a social worker as members.
  3. National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) along with other Legal Services Institutions conducts Lok Adalats.
  4. NALSA was constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 which came into force on 9th November 1995 to establish a nationwide uniform network for providing free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society.
  • Jurisdiction: A Lok Adalat shall have jurisdiction to determine and to arrive at a compromise or settlement between the parties to a dispute in respect of:
  1. Any case pending before any court, or
  2. Any matter which is falling within the jurisdiction of any court and is not brought before such court.
  3. Any case pending before the court can be referred to the Lok Adalat for settlement if:
  • Rules: Parties agree to settle the dispute in the Lok Adalat or one of the parties applies for referral of the case to the Lok Adalat or court is satisfied that the matter can be solved by a Lok Adalat. In the case of a pre-litigation dispute, the matter can be referred to the Lok Adalat on receipt of an application from any one of the parties to the dispute. Matters such as matrimonial/family disputes, criminal (compoundable offences) cases, land acquisition cases, labour disputes, workmen’s compensation cases, bank recovery cases, etc. are being taken up in Lok Adalats. However, the Lok Adalat shall have no jurisdiction in respect of any case or matter relating to an offence not compoundable under any law. In other words, the offences which are non-compoundable under any law fall outside the purview of the Lok Adalat.
  • Powers: The Lok Adalat shall have the same powers as are vested in a Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedure (1908). A Lok Adalat shall have the requisite powers to specify its own procedure for the determination of any dispute coming before it.  All proceedings before a Lok Adalat shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code (1860) and every Lok Adalat shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purpose of the Code of Criminal Procedure (1973). An award of a Lok Adalat shall be deemed to be a decree of a Civil Court or an order of any other court. Every award made by a Lok Adalat shall be final and binding on all the parties to the dispute. No appeal shall lie to any court against the award of the Lok Adalat.
  • Benefits: There is no court fee and if court fee is already paid the amount will be refunded if the dispute is settled at Lok Adalat. There is procedural flexibility and speedy trial of the disputes. There is no strict application of procedural laws while assessing the claim by Lok Adalat. The parties to the dispute can directly interact with the judge through their counsel which is not possible in regular courts of law. The award by the Lok Adalat is binding on the parties and it has the status of a decree of a civil court and it is non-appealable, which does not cause the delay in the settlement of disputes finally.
  • Permanent Lok Adalats: The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 was amended in 2002 to provide for the establishment of the Permanent Lok Adalats to deal with cases pertaining to the public utility services like transport, postal, telegraph etc.
  • Features: These have been set up as permanent bodies and consist of a Chairman who is or has been a district judge or additional district judge or has held judicial office higher in rank than that of the district judge and two other persons having adequate experience in public utility services.
  1. It shall not have jurisdiction in respect of any matter relating to an offence not compoundable under any law. The jurisdiction of the Permanent Lok Adalats is upto Rs. 1 crore.
  2. Before the dispute is brought before any court, any party to the dispute may make an application to the Permanent Lok Adalat for settlement of the dispute. After an application is made to the Permanent Lok Adalat, no party to that application shall invoke jurisdiction of any court in the same dispute.
  3. It shall formulate the terms of a possible settlement and submit them to the parties for their observations and in case the parties reach an agreement, the Permanent Lok Adalat shall pass an award in terms thereof. In case parties to the dispute fail to reach an agreement, the Permanent Lok Adalat shall decide the dispute on merits.
  • Summary: A major drawback of the Lok Adalats is that if the parties do not arrive at any compromise or settlement, the case is either returned to the court of law or the parties are advised to seek a remedy in a court of law. This causes unnecessary delay in the dispensation of justice.
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    • 6. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Prelims, Various GS Papers)
Semiconductors and the U.S. China battle
  • The small chips: Semiconductors, known as chips, are an essential component at the heart of economic growth, security, and technological innovation. Smaller than the size of a postage stamp, thinner than a human hair, and made of nearly 40 billion components, the impact that semiconductors are having on world development exceeds that of the Industrial Revolution.
  • What impact: From smartphones, PCs, pacemakers to the internet, electronic vehicles, aircrafts, and hypersonic weaponry, semiconductors are ubiquitous in electrical devices and the digitization of goods and services such as global e-commerce. Demand is skyrocketing, with the industry facing numerous challenges and opportunities as emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), quantum computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and advanced wireless communications, notably 5G, all requiring cutting-edge semiconductor-enabled devices.
  • Latest trends: The COVID-19 pandemic and international trade disputes are straining the industry’s supply and value chains while the battle between the United States and China over tech supremacy risks splintering the supply chain further, contributing to technological fragmentation and significant disruption in international commerce.
  • US leadership: For decades, the U.S. has been a leader in the semiconductor industry, controlling 48 percent (or $193 billion) of the market share in terms of revenue as of 2020. Eight of the 15 largest semiconductor firms in the world are in the U.S., with Intel ranking first in terms of sales. China is a net importer of semiconductors, heavily relying on foreign manufacturers—notably those in the U.S.—to enable most of its technology. China imported $350 billion worth of chips in 2020, an increase of 14.6 percent from 2019.
  1. Through its Made in China 2025 initiative and Guidelines to Promote National Integrated Circuit Industry Development, over the past six years, China has been ramping up its efforts using financial incentives, intellectual property (IP) and antitrust standards to accelerate the development of its domestic semiconductor industry, diminish its reliance on the U.S., and establish itself as a global tech leader.
  2. As U.S.-China competition has intensified, notably under the former Trump administration, the U.S. has been tightening semiconductor export controls with stricter licensing policies, particularly toward Chinese entities. Concerns continue regarding China’s acquisition of American technology through civilian supply chains and integration with Chinese military and surveillance capabilities.
  • Taiwan stuck in between: Caught between these global superpowers is the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (TSMC), a leading manufacturer in the industry, owning 51.5 percent of the foundry market and producing the most advanced chips in the world (10 nanometers or smaller). TSMC supports both American and Chinese firms such as Apple, Qualcomm, Broadcom, and Xilinx. Until recently, the firm also supplied Huawei but severed ties with the Chinese giant in May 2020 because of U.S. Department of Commerce restrictions on Huawei suppliers over security concerns. Taiwan has also become a geopolitical focal point because the Trump administration’s moves to strengthen American-Taiwanese relations heightened tensions in the Taiwan Strait and increased China’s military activity in the region, testing the Biden administration’s resolve. As geopolitical, trade, and technology disputes mount and the COVID-19 pandemic continues to harm the supply and value chains, semiconductor firms are trying to secure their manufacturing processes by stockpiling supplies or relocating production facilities—disrupting the industry at large.
  • Action taken: The industry continues to experience a range of protective tariff and non-tariff measures that threaten production and competitiveness of the industry. Semiconductors represent the linchpin for U.S. and China’s mutually dependent technological ambitions. Semiconductors are a critical technological vulnerability for both China and the United States, which rely on each other as well as Taiwan for cutting-edge semiconductor devices.
  1. Despite massive investment, China is highly unlikely to achieve independent semiconductor manufacturing capabilities in the next five to 10 years. Chinese companies are unable to compete against top-tier firms because of limited access to semiconductor manufacturing equipment (SME) and software, and their overall lack of industry knowledge hinders the development of a self-sufficient supply chain.
  2. Taiwan is set to become the center of U.S.-China tensions. Given the country’s central role in semiconductor manufacturing and technology supply chains, China will likely leverage its economic influence through trade restrictions, talent recruitment, and cyber to attack key companies in order to obtain core semiconductor intellectual property (IP) needed to bolster its domestic industry.
  • Summary: Collaboration between the Biden administration and American corporations will be key to balancing national security and commercial interests. Given that multilateral frameworks on semiconductor regulation do not include Taiwan or China, the Biden administration could bolster existing forums for enhanced American-Taiwanese economic relations through the Economic Prosperity Partnership Dialogue (EPP) and Sino-American relations through the Strategic Economic Dialogue.

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    • 7. SOCIAL ISSUES (Prelims, GS Paper 2)
Employment scene in India - Latest numbers & facts 
  • Scene in 2021: India had an unemployment rate of 6.9 per cent in February 2021, higher than January's 6.5 per cent rate but lower than December 2020's 9.1 per cent. The unemployment rate has ranged from 6.5 per cent to 9 per cent in the post-lockdown period since July 2020.
  • Trends: The unemployment rate has, therefore, recovered to its pre-lockdown levels. However, other more important labour market parameters have worsened.
  1. The two important labour market ratios are the labour force participation rate (LPR) and the employment rate (ER).
  2. Both remain significantly lower than their levels before the lockdown.
  3. A recovery in these two ratios to pre-lockdown levels is still a distant dream. Problems started much before the lockdowns.
  4. In February 2021, the LPR was 40.5 per cent (lower than the 40.6 per cent in January 2021 and 42.6 per cent in February 2020)
  5. This means that the proportion of working-age people who are employed or are unemployed and actively seeking employment has declined.
  • Analysis of unemployment: The return of the unemployment rate to pre-lockdown times is not worth celebrating because it is more a reflection of a shrinking labour force than a decline in the count of the unemployed.
  1. During July-February FY 20, the unemployment rate of 7.6 per cent was a ratio of the 3.32 crore unemployed out of a labour force of 43.85 crore.
  2. During July-February FY 21, a similar unemployment rate of 7.3 per cent is a ratio of 3.12 crore unemployed out of a smaller labour force of 42.63 crore.
  3. The fall in unemployed does not imply that more people got employment, but that the unemployed just stopped looking for jobs.
  • Analysis of employment: The count of employed (larger component of the labour force) has declined sharply.
  1. For July-February of FY 20, 40.53 crore persons were employed.
  2. For July-February of FY 21, 39.52 crore persons were employed.
  3. So 1 crore less jobs this year than the previous!
  • Add the two: The post-lockdown period is characterised by a 2.5 per cent fall in employment and 6.2 per cent fall in the count of the unemployed. This translates into a 2.8 per cent contraction of the labour force.
  • GDP growth and jobs: Statistics show a small positive growth of 0.4 per cent y-o-y, in real GDP in the Q3. But, employment has not recovered similarly. It was down by 2.8 per cent.
  1. India has faced a multi-decadal challenge in generating employment commensurate with its real GDP growth.
  2. From here on, it would take a much faster GDP growth or a more labour-intensive GDP growth to bring employment growth into the positive zone.
  3. Else, jobs will continue to decline.
  • Summary of data: Total employment in India declined from 41.3 crore in 2016-17 to 40.9 crore in 2019-20. This is a time when the economy was growing at about 6 per cent per annum on average. Today, it's crawling, after a huge shrinkage.
  1. The employment rate is the proportion of the working-age population that is employed. So, employment needs to grow at least enough to keep pace with the rate at which the working-age population is growing. That will keep things stable (not worse)
  2. India’s employment rate has been falling steadily, from 42.7 per cent in 2016-17 to 41.6 per cent, 40.1 per cent and 39.4 per cent in the following three years till 2019-20.
  3. By February 2021, it dropped to just 37.7 per cent. The slide in the employment rate continues.
  4. The post-lockdown recovery in the employment rate is not to the pre-lockdown levels but to the earlier trend of a slow and steady fall.
  • Road ahead: This is a dire situation. If the government does not proactively make pro-jobs policies, things will simply go downhill in coming years. Private firms cannot be expected to be jobs-generators on the scale desired. It's only government, through low-cost, low-tech, low-skills factories, that can make a big dent. That is nowhere in sight today.


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    • 8. MISCELLANEOUS (Prelims, GS Paper 1, GS Paper 2)

Five new shrub frogs species found in Western Ghats
  1. The story: Researchers from India and United States have found the five new species of shrub frogs. These species of the frog were discovered from the Western Ghats which is a globally recognised biodiversity hotspot.
  2. Things to note: The five species of the frogs belong to Old World tree frog of family called Rhacophoridae. These species were discovered by researchers from Kerala Forest Research Institute, University of Delhi and University of Minnesota. This discovery is part the long comprehensive study on Shrub frogs of genus Raorchestes in the Western Ghats. The research was carried out for the period of 10 years. The new species were identified and were distinct on the basis of several criteria including the external morphology of frog, calling pattern, DNA, and behaviour.
  3. About Shrub Frog: The report highlights that the new species called Raorchestes drutaahu of the Shrub Frog was discovered from Kadhalar in Idukki district and Siruvani in Palakkad district in the state of Kerala. While one other species called Raorchestes kakkayamensis or the Kakkayam Shrub Frog was discovered only around the Kakkayam dam. Third species called Raorchestes keirasabinae or Keira’s Shrub Frog was discovered in Agasthyamalai and Anamalai hills in western ghats. The fourth species called Raorchestes sanjappai is a green shrub frog. It was found in the Wayanad region of northern Kerala. It has been named after Dr M Sanjappa who is an Indian Botanist and former Director of Botanical Survey of India. The last species which was discovered is Raorchestes vallikkannan or the Silver-eyed Shrub Frog. It was found in Siruvani hills and areas surrounding Silent Valley National Park.
SpaceX Starship SN10 explodes minutes after successful landing
  1. Key facts: SpaceX test flew the Starship rocket Serial Number 10 (SN10) and aimed to launch the prototype at the height of 10 kilometres (around 32,800 feet) altitude. The rocket was not carrying any passengers on board because it was a development vehicle and it flies autonomously. The last two prototypes namely the SN8 and SN9 reached to the high altitudes in December 2020 and February 2021 but they slammed into ground at Boca Chica in Texas and got exploded. Each of these three test flights lasted for around six minutes.
  2. Strange explosion: The reason for the explosion of the prototype, minutes after successfully landing, was not immediately clear. However, it was being referred “Rapid Unscheduled Disassembly” by the company.
  3. SpaceX Starship system: It is a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit heavy-lift launch vehicle. It is developed by SpaceX. The system comprises of a booster stage called Super Heavy. The second stage of the vehicle is called as Starship. The second stage of the vehicle was designed as a long-duration cargo. The system also comprises of a passenger-carrying spacecraft. It will serve as second stage as well as the in-space long-duration orbital spaceship. the development of engine for this system was started in 2012 while the starship development started in 2016. This is a self-funded private spaceflight project. Testing of the second stage Starship started in 2019.
India to commemorate “Chabahar Day” on March 4
  1. Information: The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) stated that, India will commemorate the ‘Chabahar Day’ on March 4, 2021 on the margins of the ongoing Maritime India Summit 2021 which is being held in Delhi from March 2 to March 4.
  2. Highlights: The virtual event will witness the participation of ministers from Afghanistan, Iran, Armenia, Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. During the event; The ministerial level opening session will be addressed by the external Affairs Minister, S Jaishankar while a keynote address by be given the Minister of State (Independent Charge) Mansukh Mandaviya, for the Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways. Ministerial-level opening session would be followed by two webinar sessions namely the ‘Boosting Business through Trade Promotion and Regional Connectivity’ and ‘Development of Port Infrastructure: Unleashing Opportunities’.
  3. Chabahar Port: It is a seaport in Chabahar which is located in south-eastern Iran in the Gulf of Oman. The port serves as the only oceanic port of Iran. The port comprises of two separate ports namely the Shahid Beheshti and Shahid Kalantari. The port was first proposed by last shah of Iran in the year 1973. The first phase was opened in 1983 during the Iran–Iraq War.
Swachhta Saarthi Fellowship
  • A new scheme: The Office of Principal Scientific Adviser of the Government of India has launched the “Swachhta Saarthi Fellowship” under the “Waste to Wealth” Mission on March 3, 2021.
  • About the Fellowship: The Swachhta Saarthi Fellowship initiative was launched with the objective of recognizing the students, self-help groups, community workers, sanitary workers and municipal workers who are engaged in tackling enormous challenge of waste management in a scientific and sustainable manner. Under the fellowship programme, the government will be providing awards under three categories as stated below:
  1. Category-A– This category will be open to School students of standards 9th to 12th who are engaged in the waste management community work.
  2. Category-B– This category is open to UG, PG and Research Students engaged in the waste management community work.
  3. Category-C: This category of the fellowship is open to the Citizens who are working in the community and through Self Help Groups, municipal workers or sanitary workers who are working beyond the specifications of their job requirements.
  • Waste to Wealth Mission: The “waste to wealth mission” was launched with the objective of identifying, developing and deploying technologies in order to treat the waste to recycle materials, extract worth and generate energy. This mission is one among the nine-national mission of the “Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC)” of the Prime Minister. It will also assist and augment the Smart Cities project and Swachh Bharat Mission in a bid to create circular economic models which are financially viable for waste management. This will in turn help in streamlining the waste handling across the country.
  • E-waste to Wealth Technology: The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi has developed a zero-emission technology that will manage and recycle the e-waste into wealth. The technology uses the e-waste as the Urban Mine for recovering the metal and producing energy. Under the methodology, e-waste is shredded and pyrolyzed into the liquid and gaseous fuels which leaving behind a solid fraction which is rich in metal.
9.1 Today's best editorials to read
  • We offer you 7 excellent editorials from across 10 newspapers we have scanned. 

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    • SECTION 3 - MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions)

Solve the online quiz given, right now. Check scores, and relative performance!



01-01-2020,1,04-08-2021,1,05-08-2021,1,06-08-2021,1,28-06-2021,1,Abrahamic religions,6,Afganistan,1,Afghanistan,35,Afghanitan,1,Afghansitan,1,Africa,2,Agri tech,2,Agriculture,150,Ancient and Medieval History,51,Ancient History,4,Ancient sciences,1,April 2020,25,April 2021,22,Architecture and Literature of India,11,Armed forces,1,Art Culture and Literature,1,Art Culture Entertainment,2,Art Culture Languages,3,Art Culture Literature,10,Art Literature Entertainment,1,Artforms and Artists,1,Article 370,1,Arts,11,Athletes and Sportspersons,2,August 2020,24,August 2021,239,August-2021,3,Authorities and Commissions,4,Aviation,3,Awards and Honours,26,Awards and HonoursHuman Rights,1,Banking,1,Banking credit finance,13,Banking-credit-finance,19,Basic of Comprehension,2,Best Editorials,4,Biodiversity,46,Biotechnology,47,Biotechology,1,Centre State relations,19,CentreState relations,1,China,81,Citizenship and immigration,24,Civils Tapasya - English,92,Climage Change,3,Climate and weather,44,Climate change,60,Climate Chantge,1,Colonialism and imperialism,3,Commission and Authorities,1,Commissions and Authorities,27,Constitution and Law,467,Constitution and laws,1,Constitutional and statutory roles,19,Constitutional issues,128,Constitutonal Issues,1,Cooperative,1,Cooperative Federalism,10,Coronavirus variants,7,Corporates,3,Corporates Infrastructure,1,Corporations,1,Corruption and transparency,16,Costitutional issues,1,Covid,104,Covid Pandemic,1,COVID VIRUS NEW STRAIN DEC 2020,1,Crimes against women,15,Crops,10,Cryptocurrencies,2,Cryptocurrency,7,Crytocurrency,1,Currencies,5,Daily Current Affairs,453,Daily MCQ,32,Daily MCQ Practice,573,Daily MCQ Practice - 01-01-2022,1,Daily MCQ Practice - 17-03-2020,1,DCA-CS,286,December 2020,26,Decision Making,2,Defence and Militar,2,Defence and Military,281,Defence forces,9,Demography and Prosperity,36,Demonetisation,2,Destitution and poverty,7,Discoveries and Inventions,8,Discovery and Inventions,1,Disoveries and Inventions,1,Eastern religions,2,Economic & Social Development,2,Economic Bodies,1,Economic treaties,5,Ecosystems,3,Education,119,Education and employment,5,Educational institutions,3,Elections,37,Elections in India,16,Energy,134,Energy laws,3,English Comprehension,3,Entertainment Games and Sport,1,Entertainment Games and Sports,33,Entertainment Games and Sports – Athletes and sportspersons,1,Entrepreneurship and startups,1,Entrepreneurships and startups,1,Enviroment and Ecology,2,Environment and Ecology,228,Environment destruction,1,Environment Ecology and Climage Change,1,Environment Ecology and Climate Change,458,Environment Ecology Climate Change,5,Environment protection,12,Environmental protection,1,Essay paper,643,Ethics and Values,26,EU,27,Europe,1,Europeans in India and important personalities,6,Evolution,4,Facts and Charts,4,Facts and numbers,1,Features of Indian economy,31,February 2020,25,February 2021,23,Federalism,2,Flora and fauna,6,Foreign affairs,507,Foreign exchange,9,Formal and informal economy,13,Fossil fuels,14,Fundamentals of the Indian Economy,10,Games SportsEntertainment,1,GDP GNP PPP etc,12,GDP-GNP PPP etc,1,GDP-GNP-PPP etc,20,Gender inequality,9,Geography,10,Geography and Geology,2,Global trade,22,Global treaties,2,Global warming,146,Goverment decisions,4,Governance and Institution,2,Governance and Institutions,773,Governance and Schemes,221,Governane and Institutions,1,Government decisions,226,Government Finances,2,Government Politics,1,Government schemes,358,GS I,93,GS II,66,GS III,38,GS IV,23,GST,8,Habitat destruction,5,Headlines,22,Health and medicine,1,Health and medicine,56,Healtha and Medicine,1,Healthcare,1,Healthcare and Medicine,98,Higher education,12,Hindu individual editorials,54,Hinduism,9,History,216,Honours and Awards,1,Human rights,249,IMF-WB-WTO-WHO-UNSC etc,2,Immigration,6,Immigration and citizenship,1,Important Concepts,68,Important Concepts.UPSC Mains GS III,3,Important Dates,1,Important Days,35,Important exam concepts,11,Inda,1,India,29,India Agriculture and related issues,1,India Economy,1,India's Constitution,14,India's independence struggle,19,India's international relations,4,India’s international relations,7,Indian Agriculture and related issues,9,Indian and world media,5,Indian Economy,1248,Indian Economy – Banking credit finance,1,Indian Economy – Corporates,1,Indian Economy.GDP-GNP-PPP etc,1,Indian Geography,1,Indian history,33,Indian judiciary,119,Indian Politcs,1,Indian Politics,637,Indian Politics – Post-independence India,1,Indian Polity,1,Indian Polity and Governance,2,Indian Society,1,Indias,1,Indias international affairs,1,Indias international relations,30,Indices and Statistics,98,Indices and Statstics,1,Industries and services,32,Industry and services,1,Inequalities,2,Inequality,103,Inflation,33,Infra projects and financing,6,Infrastructure,252,Infrastruture,1,Institutions,1,Institutions and bodies,267,Institutions and bodies Panchayati Raj,1,Institutionsandbodies,1,Instiutions and Bodies,1,Intelligence and security,1,International Institutions,10,international relations,2,Internet,11,Inventions and discoveries,10,Irrigation Agriculture Crops,1,Issues on Environmental Ecology,3,IT and Computers,23,Italy,1,January 2020,26,January 2021,25,July 2020,5,July 2021,207,June,1,June 2020,45,June 2021,369,June-2021,1,Juridprudence,2,Jurisprudence,91,Jurisprudence Governance and Institutions,1,Land reforms and productivity,15,Latest Current Affairs,1136,Law and order,45,Legislature,1,Logical Reasoning,9,Major events in World History,16,March 2020,24,March 2021,23,Markets,182,Maths Theory Booklet,14,May 2020,24,May 2021,25,Meetings and Summits,27,Mercantilism,1,Military and defence alliances,5,Military technology,8,Miscellaneous,454,Modern History,15,Modern historym,1,Modern technologies,42,Monetary and financial policies,20,monsoon and climate change,1,Myanmar,1,Nanotechnology,2,Nationalism and protectionism,17,Natural disasters,13,New Laws and amendments,57,News media,3,November 2020,22,Nuclear technology,11,Nuclear techology,1,Nuclear weapons,10,October 2020,24,Oil economies,1,Organisations and treaties,1,Organizations and treaties,2,Pakistan,2,Panchayati Raj,1,Pandemic,137,Parks reserves sanctuaries,1,Parliament and Assemblies,18,People and Persoalities,1,People and Persoanalities,2,People and Personalites,1,People and Personalities,189,Personalities,46,Persons and achievements,1,Pillars of science,1,Planning and management,1,Political bodies,2,Political parties and leaders,26,Political philosophies,23,Political treaties,3,Polity,485,Pollution,62,Post independence India,21,Post-Governance in India,17,post-Independence India,46,Post-independent India,1,Poverty,46,Poverty and hunger,1,Prelims,2054,Prelims CSAT,30,Prelims GS I,7,Prelims Paper I,189,Primary and middle education,10,Private bodies,1,Products and innovations,7,Professional sports,1,Protectionism and Nationalism,26,Racism,1,Rainfall,1,Rainfall and Monsoon,5,RBI,73,Reformers,3,Regional conflicts,1,Regional Conflicts,79,Regional Economy,16,Regional leaders,43,Regional leaders.UPSC Mains GS II,1,Regional Politics,149,Regional Politics – Regional leaders,1,Regionalism and nationalism,1,Regulator bodies,1,Regulatory bodies,63,Religion,44,Religion – Hinduism,1,Renewable energy,4,Reports,102,Reports and Rankings,119,Reservations and affirmative,1,Reservations and affirmative action,42,Revolutionaries,1,Rights and duties,12,Roads and Railways,5,Russia,3,schemes,1,Science and Techmology,1,Science and Technlogy,1,Science and Technology,819,Science and Tehcnology,1,Sciene and Technology,1,Scientists and thinkers,1,Separatism and insurgencies,2,September 2020,26,September 2021,444,SociaI Issues,1,Social Issue,2,Social issues,1308,Social media,3,South Asia,10,Space technology,70,Startups and entrepreneurship,1,Statistics,7,Study material,280,Super powers,7,Super-powers,24,TAP 2020-21 Sessions,3,Taxation,39,Taxation and revenues,23,Technology and environmental issues in India,16,Telecom,3,Terroris,1,Terrorism,103,Terrorist organisations and leaders,1,Terrorist acts,10,Terrorist acts and leaders,1,Terrorist organisations and leaders,14,Terrorist organizations and leaders,1,The Hindu editorials analysis,58,Tournaments,1,Tournaments and competitions,5,Trade barriers,3,Trade blocs,2,Treaties and Alliances,1,Treaties and Protocols,43,Trivia and Miscalleneous,1,Trivia and miscellaneous,43,UK,1,UN,114,Union budget,20,United Nations,6,UPSC Mains GS I,584,UPSC Mains GS II,3969,UPSC Mains GS III,3071,UPSC Mains GS IV,191,US,63,USA,3,Warfare,20,World and Indian Geography,24,World Economy,404,World figures,39,World Geography,23,World History,21,World Poilitics,1,World Politics,612,World Politics.UPSC Mains GS II,1,WTO,1,WTO and regional pacts,4,अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संस्थाएं,10,गणित सिद्धान्त पुस्तिका,13,तार्किक कौशल,10,निर्णय क्षमता,2,नैतिकता और मौलिकता,24,प्रौद्योगिकी पर्यावरण मुद्दे,15,बोधगम्यता के मूल तत्व,2,भारत का प्राचीन एवं मध्यकालीन इतिहास,47,भारत का स्वतंत्रता संघर्ष,19,भारत में कला वास्तुकला एवं साहित्य,11,भारत में शासन,18,भारतीय कृषि एवं संबंधित मुद्दें,10,भारतीय संविधान,14,महत्वपूर्ण हस्तियां,6,यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा,91,यूपीएससी मुख्य परीक्षा जीएस,117,यूरोपीय,6,विश्व इतिहास की मुख्य घटनाएं,16,विश्व एवं भारतीय भूगोल,24,स्टडी मटेरियल,266,स्वतंत्रता-पश्चात् भारत,15,
PT's IAS Academy: Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 04-03-2021
Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 04-03-2021
Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 04-03-2021
PT's IAS Academy
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