Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 09-06-2020

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Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 09-06-2020

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    • SECTION 1 - TEN NEWS HEADLINES
  1. COVID-19 Updates – Malls, cafes reopen to a new normal – Places of worship, malls and restaurants reopened across the country as India bid a graded goodbye to a stringent 75-day lockdown intended to slow the spread of COVID-19 even as positive cases continued to grow in many States and cities. Metro and suburban rail services, educational institutions, gymnasiums, cinema halls, bars and auditoriums remained closed in line with a May 30 Home Ministry order. Their reopening will be reviewed in July and subsequent months. Visitors trickled into malls in Delhi with stringent temperature checks at entry points and shop doors. At Select City Walk mall in Saket, the food court was open during lunch hour but only four or five tables were occupied.
  2. India Politics – HC asks Manipur Speaker to keep 7 Cong. MLAs out – The Manipur High Court directed Speaker Yumnam Khemchand to “restrain” seven Congress MLAs, who had “defected” to the BJP, from entering the Assembly. The MLAs had raised the strength of the BJP-led coalition government to 40 in the 60-member Assembly. Justice K. Nobin Singh ordered that they “are restrained from entering the Manipur Legislative Assembly, Imphal” unless and until the petitions “are disposed of finally” by the Speaker.
  3. Indian Economy – MSME revival package yet to take off – Almost one month after Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced a revival package for stressed micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), the scheme is yet to see the light of the day. The scheme, which was to provide ₹20,000-crore equity support to stressed MSMEs and those categorised as non-performing assets, was approved by the Union Cabinet on June 1. Under the scheme, banks were expected to provide subordinate debt to promoters of stressed MSMEs, up to 15% of their existing stake in the unit subject to a maximum of Rs. 75 lakh. This would have helped two lakh stressed enterprises. However, the scheme has not taken off as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is yet to issue the guidelines for it.
  4. Indian Politics – Rajya Sabha Elections: BJP high command ignore Yediyurappa – In a major snub to its State core committee and Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. Yediyurappa, the BJP high command has rejected all the three names recommended by them for the Rajya Sabha polls scheduled for June 19. Instead, the high command has chosen two less-known, old-time party workers as its candidates: the BJP’s organisational in-charge leaders for Belagavi and Ballari zones, Eranna Kadadi and Ashok Gasthi, respectively. Mr. Kadadi, who has been a party worker for over three decades, hails from Belagavi district and has served as the president of the Belagavi Zilla Panchayat. He belongs to the dominant Panchamashali Lingayat community. Mr. Gasthi has served as the chairman of the Karnataka State Commission for Backward Classes. He belongs to the backward Savitha Samaja community.
  5. J&K/Terrorism – Four local militants killed in Shopian – Four local militants were killed in an encounter with security forces in south Kashmir’s Shopian after a four-hour operation. A day earlier, five militants were killed in the same area. According to Jammu and Kashmir police chief Dilbag Singh, as many as 22 militants have been killed in the past two weeks. At a press conference in Awantipora, Lt. Gen. B.S. Raju of the XV Corps said that after the revocation of Article 370 in J&K last year, the people of Kashmir took the decision in a “positive manner” as there was relative peace for a long time. He asked people not to “consume Pakistani media as they peddled only misinformation”.
  6. COVID-19 Updates – New Zealand's last known coronavirus case has recovered –  Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said she was confident New Zealand has halted the spread of the coronavirus after the last known infected person in the country recovered. It has been 17 days since the last new case was reported in New Zealand, and Monday also marked the first time since late February that there have been no active cases. New Zealand has tested almost 40,000 people in the past 17 days and no one has been in a hospital with Covid-19 for 12 days. She also announced the Cabinet agreed to another phase of the country's reopening at midnight.
  7. COVID-19 Updates - In a clean-chit to itself, China publishes white paper on Covid-19 fight – China has issued a white paper on the country's battle against Covid-19, exonerating itself from the global allegations of delay in reporting the pandemic outbreak. China has for now succeeded in cutting all channels for the transmission of the virus, the paper said but noted that the virus is currently wreaking havoc throughout the world. The Covid-19 epidemic, as a major public health emergency, has spread faster and wider than any other since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and proven to be the most difficult to contain, said the white paper.
  8. George Floyde Protets – Winston Churchill statue vandalised in London – Anti-racism protesters in England defaced the memorial to Winston Churchill in Westminster during Black Lives Matter protests on Sunday, local media reported. According to the The Evening Standard, demonstrators scrawle "was a racist" on the statue of the wartime British Prime Minister in Parliament Square on Sunday afternoon as thousands descended on London for another protest over American George Floyd's death.
  9. Indian Economy – India's economy to contract by 3.2 per cent in fiscal year 2020-21: World Bank – The World Bank expects India's economy to contract 3.2% in the current fiscal year, a sharp downgrade from its April projection of 1.5%-2.8% growth, citing stringent lockdown and spill overs from weaker global growth. The Global Economic Prospects (GEP) report released said the lockdown would severely curtail activity despite fiscal and monetary stimulus. Further, weaker global economic performance and balance sheet stress in the financial sector would also weigh on activity.
  10. Indian Economy – RBI proposes easier securitisation, loan sale guidelines – The RBI is proposing a new set of guidelines that would address the differential between mortgage loans and other loans securitisation, simplifying regulations. In two draft papers released on its website the central bank also proposed to bridge the difference between sale of loans and assignments’ of receivables which lenders use to improve their cash flows while keeping the loans on their books. In the draft guidelines RBI said has modified the definition of securitisation to include single asset securities against the multiple asset securities allowed in the existing norms. 

Important Exam Notifications
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PGCIL
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    • SECTION 2 - DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS
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    • 1. CONSTITUTION AND LAW (Prelims, GS Paper 2, Essay paper)
1.1 Catalysing Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) in India

  • ODR -
  1. ODR in India is in its infancy stage and it is gaining prominence day by day.
  2. With the enactment of Information Technology Act, 2000 in India, e-commerce and e-governance have been given a formal and legal recognition in India.
  • Why in news -
  1. Recently, the NITI Aayog, in association with Agami and Omidyar Network India had a virtual meeting with key stakeholders for advancing ODR in India.
  2. Senior judges of the SC, key government officials, industry leaders, legal experts and general counsels of leading enterprises took part in the meeting.
  3. The common theme of the meeting was a multi-stakeholder agreement to work collaboratively to scale ODR up in India.
  4. These are the early signs of the adoption of an alternative dispute resolution mechanism being widely used in China and the US, particularly in cases related to online transactions.
  5. How the resolution is done online through a website-based platform:
  6. First, one party approaches the platform, which contacts the other party.
  7. If both parties agree to the arbitration rules, an arbiter is appointed and time-stamped intimations are sent on emails and WhatsApp and SMS.
  8. The parties do not meet face to face but communicate electronically, including via video calls.
  9. The decision, which is legally binding, typically comes in 20-25 days.
  • Significance of ODR in India and globally - 
  1. In India, where courts are overburdened and the backlog of cases runs into lakhs, the argument for online dispute resolution is strong.
  2. ODR offers a more accessible, transparent and faster option, particularly for companies dealing with high volume and low value transactions done online.
  3. Globally, ODR growth was fueled by the e-commerce boom, with eBay and PayPal resolving millions of disputes online.
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            • 2. ECONOMY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper
          2.1 Direct Tax Collection Declines in FY20


          • Key point -
          1. Gross direct tax dips about 5% in FY20 due to cut in corporation tax, increase in personal income tax exemption to Rs 5 lakh.
          • Highlights -
          1. The gross direct tax collection stood at Rs 12,33,720 crore for FY20, compared to Rs 12,97,674 crore collected in FY 2018-19.
          2. The gross collections would have stood at Rs 14.01 lakh crore in 2019-20, if revenue foregone in corporate tax and personal income tax was taken into account.
          3. This is the first time in over a decade that tax collections have dipped on-year.
          • What does the CBDT say -
          1. The decline was already expected and the same will be temporary in nature due to the historic tax reforms undertaken and much higher refunds issued during the FY20.
          2. The board also refuted reports that tax buoyancy compared to GDP growth had reached negative.
          3. The tax reforms had direct impact on tax collections with Rs 1.68 lakh crore of revenue foregone, including Rs 1.45 lakh crore for corporate tax and Rs 23,200 crore for personal income tax.
          4. Refunds of Rs 1.84 lakh crore were issued in FY20, higher than Rs 1.61 lakh crore issued the year before.
          5. The higher growth rate in direct taxes as compared to GDP even in these tough times shows that recent efforts for the widening of the tax base undertaken by the government are giving good results.
          • The fall in collections is due to -
          1. 14% year-on-year increase in refunds issued.
          2. Cut in the corporate tax rate to 22%.
          3. Reduction in MAT to 15% for existing units.
          4. Reduced rate of 15% for new manufacturing units.
          5. Increase in standard deduction to Rs 50,000.
          6. Income tax exemption for people earning up to Rs 5 lakh a year.
              2.2 NIPER Guwahati and Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd, Pune sign MoU for manufacturing of 3D antimicrobial face-shields.

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                          • 3. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY (Prelims, GS Paper 3, Essay paper)

                        3.1 World Oceans Day celebrated on June 8
                        • Key point -
                        1.  Organising body – UNO
                        2. Theme: “Innovation for a Sustainable Ocean”.
                        • Aim  -  
                        1. The International day supports the implementation of worldwide Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and fosters public interest in the management of the ocean and its resources.
                        • History -
                        1. The concept was originally proposed in 1992 by Canada's International Centre for Ocean Development (ICOD) and the Ocean Institute of Canada (OIC) at the Earth Summit – UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
                        2. World Oceans Day was officially recognised by the United Nations in 2008. 
                        • Did you know?
                        1. Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source of protein.
                        2. Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods.
                        3. Oceans absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.

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                            • 4. FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Prelims, GS Paper 2, Essay paper)

                          4.1 DSDBO road upsets China

                          • Key point –
                          1. The 255-km Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie (DSDBO) road joining Leh to the Karakoram Pass, which has become a thorn in China's flesh, has been in the making for around two decades and is expected to be completed by this year.
                          • Darbuk–Shyok–DBO Road -
                          1. It is an all-weather road in eastern Ladakh in India, close to the Line of Actual Control with China.
                          2. It connects Ladakh's capital city Leh, via the villages of Darbuk and Shyok at southern Shyok Valley, with the Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) post near the China border.
                          3. The 220-km long section between Shyok and DBO was constructed between 2000 and 2019 by India's Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
                          • Significance of the road -
                          1. DBO is situated just 9 km away from the LAC with China and the road will help in managing the border and the areas adjoining Aksai Chin, Chip Chap River and Jiwan Nalla.
                          2. DBO is India’s northernmost corner, which in army parlance is called Sub-Sector North, and building a road till here has been of vital importance to India.
                          3. The same will also ensure quicker deployment of troops in the area.
                          4. Before the laying of the road, there was only one way to reach the area – via the ALG, where heavy-lift aircraft, such as the C-130J, can land.
                          5. From the DSDBO road, a road branches off towards Galwan Valley, a hill feature, which India wants to protect because it overlooks the area around the main road.
                          6. The branch road has prompted the stand-off in Galwan Valley.
                          7. Indian troops have been patrolling up to this area, but the idea now is to have a road access and presence here.
                          • China’s objection
                          1. China has objected to this and doesn’t want India to utilize the DSDBO road to its full potential, which has led to the ongoing confrontations.
                          4.2 Parliament of Vietnam ratifies European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement.
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                                        • 5. GOVERNMENT SCHEMES (Prelims, GS Paper 2, GS Paper 3)
                                      5.1 Not Available Today
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                                              • 6. MISCELLANEOUS (Prelims, Various GS Papers)
                                            6.1 Not Available Today
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                                                  • 7. POLITY (Prelims, GS Paper 2)
                                                7.1 Gairsain in Chamoli district declared summer capital of Uttarakhand

                                                • Significance –
                                                1. It is expected that the declaration of a summer capital in the region will expedite development of the hilly areas.
                                                • Gairsain (Bhararisen)
                                                1. Gairsain, a tehsil in Chamoli district, is located nearly 270-km from existing temporary capital of Dehradun.
                                                • Why Uttarakhand wants a second capital in Gairsain?
                                                1. The issue is largely political.
                                                2. In its Vision Document, released before the 2017 Assembly elections, the BJP had promised to equip Gairsain with top-class infrastructure and consider declaring it as a summer capital with the consensus of all in its Vision Document.
                                                3. When Uttarakhand was carved out as a separate state from Uttar Pradesh in Nov 2000, statehood activists had contended that Gairsain was best suited to be the capital of the mountainous state since it was between both Kumaon and Garhwal regions. But it was Dehradun in the plains that was names the temporary capital.
                                                • Vidhan Sabha complex in Gairsain
                                                1. Developed in an area of 47-acres, the Vidhan Sabha complex in Bhararisen stands at a height of 2380-metre from the sea level, making it a cold location for the entire year. Sources in the government said the complex has been developed at a cost of around Rs 150 crore.
                                                  7.2 Lt. Governor Anil Baijal overrules decision of CM Arvind Kejriwal to reserve hospitals for Delhi residents

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                                                                      • 8. SOCIAL ISSUES (Prelims, GS Paper 1, GS Paper 2)

                                                                    8.1 Nanotechnology-based Disinfectant Spray, ANANYA  to fight COVID-19

                                                                    • News - 
                                                                    1. Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (Pune) develops nano-technology based disinfectant spray ANANYA.
                                                                    • Significance –
                                                                    1. This nano-technology assisted formulation will not only stop the corona virus from entering human body, but it will also kill the virus when the virus comes in contact with this formulation layer on masks, PPE etc. 
                                                                    • Features – 
                                                                    1. This can be used by anyone, from a common man to a healthcare worker, for individual as well as large scale use.
                                                                    2. This spray can be used on masks, PPEs, hospital linens, as well as other likely contaminated surfaces such as medical instruments, elevator buttons, door knobs, corridors and rooms etc.
                                                                    3. This is a water based spray and will be effective for more than 24 hours.
                                                                    4. This formulation adheres very effectively to fabric, plastic and metallic objects, and its toxicity to humans is negligible. 
                                                                    5. The shelf life of the spray is said to be more than 6 months. 
                                                                    6. Commercial production of this spray is in progress.
                                                                    7. It will be available in various sizes - from small handy bottles for personal use to atomiser sprays for large areas.
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                                                                              • 9. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Prelims, GS Paper 3)
                                                                            9.1 Development of  rare earth-based magnetocaloric material for cancer treatment)

                                                                            • News - 
                                                                            1. Hyderabad-based ARCI (International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials) developed rare earth-based magnetocaloric material for cancer treatment.
                                                                            • Details –
                                                                            1. The magnetocaloric materials (certain materials in which application and removal of a magnetic field causes the materials to become warmer or cooler) developed by ARCI are being tested at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology (SCTIMST).
                                                                            • Significance –
                                                                            1. Advancements in magnetic materials led to the development of magnetic hyperthermia to try to address the issues of side effects of cancer treatment like chemotherapy.
                                                                            2. In magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles are subjected to alternating magnetic fields of few Gauss, which produce heat due to magnetic relaxation losses.
                                                                            3. Usually, the temperature required to kill the tumor cells is between 40 and 45°C but the drawback in magnetic hyperthermia is the lack of control of temperature, which may damage the healthy cells in the body and also have side effects like increased blood pressure etc.
                                                                            4. These problems can be avoided by using magnetocaloric materials, as it can provide controlled heating.
                                                                            5. The advantage of magnetocaloric materials which heat up or cool down with the application and removal of the magnetic field, respectively is that as soon as the magnetic field is removed, cooling effect is generated, unlike in magnetic nanoparticles where overheating persists, even after removal of the magnetic field.
                                                                            • Use of rare earth material –
                                                                            1. The team at ARCI chose rare-earth-based alloy for studies as some of the rare earth materials are human body compatible. 

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                                                                                            • 10. FACTS, CHARTS, RANKINGS and EDITORIALS (Prelims + GS Mains)
                                                                                          10.1 Not Available Today

                                                                                          10.2 Daily dose of  FIVE Facts -
                                                                                          • Africa Day was observed on May 25.
                                                                                          • Andhra Pradesh was in news for leak of styrene vapour from LG Polymers Limited plant in May 2020.
                                                                                          • Chuni Goswami was captain of the Indian football that won gold medal in the Jakarta Asian Games.
                                                                                          • Robert Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
                                                                                          • ICOMOS stand for International Council on Monuments and Sites.
                                                                                          10.3 Today's best editorials to read
                                                                                          • We offer you 7 excellent editorials from across 10 newspapers we have scanned. 
                                                                                          CLICK HERE TO OPEN AND READ!

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                                                                                            • SECTION 3 - MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions)

                                                                                          Solve the online quiz given, right now. Check scores, and relative performance!





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                                                                                          PT's IAS Academy: Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 09-06-2020
                                                                                          Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 09-06-2020
                                                                                          Useful compilation of Civil Services oriented - Daily Current Affairs - Civil Services - 09-06-2020
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