PT Static Repository


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PT Static Repository (Facts, Numbers, Names, Dates)

A vast collection. Constantly updated :)



  • [accordion]
    • USEFUL INFORMATION LISTED BELOW
      • Open each tab as per the heading, and you'll find information on various static issues - names, dates, organisations, terms, places etc. Refer and make the most of it. All the best!
    • 1. RBI GOVERNORS LIST AND DETAILS
      • Sir Osborne Smith - 01-04-1935 to 30-06-1937 - Sir Osborne Smith was the first Governor of the Reserve Bank. A professional banker, he served for over 20 years with the Bank of New South Wales and 10 years with the Commonwealth Bank of Australia before coming to India in 1926 as a Managing Governor of the Imperial Bank of India. His stewardship of the Imperial Bank won him recognition in banking circles in India. However, his outlook on policy issues like the exchange rates and interest rates was at variance with that of the Government. He resigned prior to the completion of his term of office of three and a half years. Sir Osborne, however, did not sign any bank notes during his tenure.

        Sir James Taylor - 01-07-1937 to 17-02-1943 - Sir James Braid Taylor was a member of the Indian Civil Service and had served for over a decade in the Currency Department of the Government of India, initially as a Deputy Controller, later as Controller of the Currency, and thereafter as additional secretary in the Finance Department. He was closely associated with the preparation and piloting of the Reserve Bank of India Bill. He served as Deputy Governor of the Bank prior to his appointment as the Governor. His stewardship saw the Bank through the war years and the financial experiments it engendered and catalysed, including the decisive break away from a silver currency to fiat money. His second term came to an end with his sudden demise.  Write a lovely testimonial for us now!

        Sir C D Deshmukh - 11-08-1943 to 30-06-1949 -
        Shri Chintaman Dwarkanath Deshmukh, a member of the Indian Civil Service, was the first Indian Governor of the Bank. His association with the Bank commenced in 1939, when he was appointed Government’s liason officer. He later served as Secretary and thereafter in 1941 as Deputy Governor of the Bank. On the demise of James Taylor, he took over stewardship of the Bank and was appointed Governor in August, 1943. During his tenure as Governor, he represented India at the Bretton Woods negotiations in 1944, saw the transition to Independence and the partition of the country and the division of the assets and liabilities of the Reserve Bank between India and Pakistan. He helped the smooth transition of the Bank from a shareholder’s institution to a State owned organisation, when the Bank was nationalised on 1st January 1949. He later held the office of Union Finance Minister between 1950-56.

        Sir Benegal Rama Rau - 01-07-1949 to 14-01-1957 -
        Sir Benegal Rama Rau, a member of the Indian Civil Service, was the longest serving Governor of the Bank. Prior to joining the Bank he served as the Indian Ambassador to the United States. His tenure witnessed the commencement of the Planning Era as well innovative initiatives in the spheres of co-operative credit and industrial finance. The recommendations of the All India Rural Credit Survey Committee appointed during his tenure led to the transformation of the Imperial Bank of India to State Bank of India. The proportional reserve system of note issue was replaced by a minimum reserve system to give the Bank greater flexibility. He resigned in the middle of January 1957 before his second extended term of office expired due to differences with the Finance Minister.

        K G Ambegaonkar - 14-01-1957 to 28-02-1957 -
        Mr K G Ambegaokar, a member of the Indian Civil Service, served as Finance Secretary prior to his appointment as Deputy Governor. On the resignation of B. Rama Rau, he was appointed as the interim Governor till H V R Iengar could take over. He forged closer connections between agricultural enterprise and the Reserve Bank’s operations. K G Ambegaonkar did not sign any bank notes.

        H V R Iengar - 01-03-1957 to 28-02-1962 -
        Shri H V R Iengar, a member of the Indian Civil Service, served for a brief while as the Chairman of State Bank of India, before being appointed as the Governor of the Reserve Bank. His tenure witnessed India’s shift to decimal coinage from the earlier system. The period saw conscious efforts to consolidate the banking industry. The Bank acquired powers in September 1960 to enforce amalgamations and delicensing of banks. The Bank was also active in catalysing medium term lending to industry by commercial banks by invoking the concept of refinance which led to the establishment of the Refinance Corporation for Industry Ltd. Deposit Insurance for bank deposits was introduced in 1962 making India one of the earliest countries to experiment with Deposit Insurance. In the sphere of monetary policy, the variable cash reserve ratio was used for the first time as were the selective credit controls.

        P C Bhattacharya - 01-03-1962 to 30-06-1967 -
        Mr P C Bhattacharya, a member of the Indian Audit and Account Service, served as Secretary in the Finance Ministry and later as Chairman of the State Bank of India prior to his appointment as Governor. His tenure saw the establishment of the Industrial Development Bank of India (1964), and the establishment of the Agricultural Refinance Corporation (1963) and the Unit Trust of India (1964). Other developments were the introduction of the Credit Authorisation Scheme as an instrument of Credit Regulation, the devaluation of the Rupee in 1966, with a package of measures including import liberalisation and elimination of export subsidies.

        L K Jha - 01-07-1967 to 03-05-1970 -
        L K Jha, a member of the Indian Civil Service, served as Secretary to the Prime Minister, prior to his appointment as Governor. During his tenure,social controls over commercial banks were introduced as an experiment in 1968, as a part of which a National Credit Council was established. Shortly thereafter, 14 major commercial banks were nationalised in 1969, a step which did not have the endorsement of the Reserve Bank. Amongst other developments, gold controls were brought on a statutory basis; Deposit Insurance was in principle extended to Cooperative banks; the Lead Bank Scheme was introduced to facilitate credit delivery, and the setting up of the Agricultural Credit Board.L K Jha was appointed India’s Ambassador to the United States in May 1970 prior to the completion of his term as Governor.

        B N Adarkar - 04-05-1970 to 15-06-1970 -
        Shri B N Adarkar held the post of Governor during the interregnum till S Jagannathan could take over as Governor. He was a professional economist and served for many years in the office of the Economic Adviser of the Government of India and also held important positions in the Ministry of Commerce & Industry prior to his appointment as the Deputy Governor of the Bank. He also served as India’s Executive Director at the IMF and as Deputy Governor, he played an active role in the establishment of the National Institute of Bank Management.

        S Jagannathan - 16-06-1970 to 19-05-1975 -
        S Jagannathan was a member of the Indian Audit and Accounts Service. He had served with the Central Government and thereafter as India’s Executive Director at the World Bank, prior to being appointed as the Governor. His tenure of office was characterised by a very active monetary policy in the wake of unprecedented inflation in the country following the oil shock, an exponential expansion of banking offices in pursuance of one of the important objectives of nationalisation; the establishment of Credit Guarantee Corporation of India, the setting up of State Level Bankers’ Committees and the shift to floating rates regime. He relinquished office to take up the post of the Indian Executive Director at the IMF.

        N C Sen Gupta - 19-05-1975 to 19-08-1975 -
        N C Sen Gupta was appointed Governor for three months till K R Puri could assume office. Prior to his appointment as the Governor, he was working as Secretary to the Department of Banking of the Ministry of Finance.

        K R Puri - 20-08-1975 to 02-05-1977 -
        K R Puri served as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Life Insurance Corporation of India before his appointment as Governor. During his tenure, Regional Rural Banks were set up; the Asian Clearing Union commenced operations; the twenty point economic programme was announced and operationalised and a new money supply series introduced.

        M Narasimham - 02-05-1977 to 30-11-1977 -
        Shri Narasimham was the first and so far the only Governor to be appointed from the Reserve Bank cadre, having joined the Bank as a Research Officer in the Economic Department. He later joined the Government and prior to his appointment as Governor he served as Additional Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs. He had a short tenure of seven months. He later served as Executive Director for India at the World Bank and thereafter at the IMF after which he served in the Ministry of Finance as Secretary. He was chairperson of the Committee on the Financial System, 1991 and the Committee of Banking Sector Reforms, 1998.

        Dr. I G Patel - 01-12-1977 to 15-09-1982 -
        Dr. I G Patel an economist and administrator, joined the Reserve Bank as Governor after serving as Secretary in the Ministry of Finance and thereafter at the UNDP. His tenure witnessed the demonetisation of high denomination notes as well as the ‘gold auctions’ conducted by the Bank on behalf of Government of India. During his tenure six private sector banks were nationalised, targets for priority sector lending introduced, and the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporations were merged, and a Departmental reorganisation was undertaken in the Bank. He played an active role in availing of the IMF’s Extended Fund Facility in 1981 due to balance of payments difficulties. This represented the largest arrangement in IMF’s history at the time.

        Dr. Manmohan Singh - 16-09-1982 to 14-01-1985 -
        Dr. Manmohan Singh, academic and administrator, had served as Secretary Finance as well as Member Secretary of the Planning Commission prior to his appointment as Governor. During his tenure comprehensive legal reforms were carried out related to the banking sector and a new chapter introduced in the Reserve Bank of India Act and the Urban Banks Department was set up. After his tenure in the Bank, he served in various capacities before being appointed Finance Minister. His tenure as Finance Minister was notable for the fact that he heralded in liberalisation and comprehensive reforms in India.

        A Ghosh - 15-01-1985 to 04-02-1985 -
        A Ghosh was the Deputy Governor of the Bank since 1982 when he was appointed Governor for a brief period of 15 days till R N Malhotra could take over. He was earlier the chairman of Allahabad Bank prior to his appointment as the Deputy Governor of the Bank. He was also a Director of the Industrial Development Bank of India and the governing body of the National Institute of Bank Management.

        R N Malhotra - 04-02-1985 to 22-12-1990 -
        Shri R.N. Malhotra, a member of the Indian Administrative Service, served as Secretary, Finance and Executive Director of the IMF. prior to his appointment as Governor. During his tenure efforts were made to develop the money markets and new instruments were introduced. The Discount and Finance House of India, the National Housing Bank were set up and the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research inaugurated. In the field of rural finance, the Service Area Approach was adopted as an approach catalyse the flow of credit through commercial banks.

        S Venkitaramanan - 22-12-1990 to 21-12-1992 -
        Shri S Venkitaramanan, a member of the Indian Administrative Service, had served as Finance Secretary and adviser to the Government of Karnataka prior to his appointment as Governor. The country faced difficulties related to the external sector during his tenure. His adroit management saw the country tide over the balance of payments crisis. His term also saw India adopt the IMF’s stabilisation programme where the Rupee underwent a devaluation and the launch of the programme of economic reforms.

        Dr.C Rangarajan - 22-12-1992 to 21-12-1997 -
        Dr. C Rangarajan was a professional economist. Prior to his appointment as the Governor, he held charge as Deputy Governor for over a decade. He was also a member of the Planning Commission and a member of the Tenth Finance Commission. His tenure as Governor saw unprecedented central bank activism to put in place a comprehensive set of measures to strengthen and improve the competitive efficiency of the financial sector. New institutions and instruments were introduced and changes in exchange rate management culminated in the establishment of a unified exchange rate. In the field of monetary policy, his tenure saw the historic memorandum signed between the Bank and the Government whereby a cap was put on the automatic finance by the Bank to the Government in the form of ad hoc treasury bills.

        Dr. Bimal Jalan - 22-11-1997 to 06-09-2003 -
        Dr. Bimal Jalan, served as Chief Economic Advisor to Government of India, Banking Secretary, Finance Secretary, Member Secretary of Planning Commission, and Chairman of the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister prior to being appointed as Governor. He had also represented India on the Executive Boards of the IMF and the World Bank. During his tenure, India weathered the Asian Crisis and has seen the consolidation of the gains of liberalisation and economic reforms. The monetary policy process was demystified and central bank communications marked a perceived shift towards transparency. This period has seen a slew of measures to strengthen the banking sector, establish new institutions and introduce new instruments. The period has been characterised by the strengthning of the balance of payments and forex position,low inflation and soft interest rates.

        Dr. Y V Reddy - 06-09-2003 to 05-09-2008 -
        Dr. Y V Reddy was the twenty-first Governor, is a member of the Indian Administrative Service. He has spent most of his career in the areas of finance and planning. He served as Secretary (Banking) in Ministry of Finance, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Commerce, Joint Secretary in Ministry of Finance in Government of India, Principal Secretary, Government of Andhra Pradesh and had a a six year tenure as Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. Prior to his appointment as the Governor, Dr. Reddy was India's Executive Director on the Board of the International Monetary Fund. Dr. Reddy has made significant policy contributions in the areas of financial sector reforms; trade finance; monitoring of balance of payments and exchange rate; external commercial borrowings; centre-state financial relations; regional planning; and public enterprise reform and has been closely associated with institution building. He has several publications to his credit mainly in areas relating to finance, planning and public enterprises.

        Dr. D. Subbarao - 05-09-2008 to 04-09-2013 -
        Dr. D. Subbarao took over on September 5, 2008 as the 22nd Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. Dr. Subbarao has been appointed for a three-year term. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Subbarao was the Finance Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. He has earlier been Secretary to the Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council (2005-2007), lead economist in the World Bank (1999-2004), Finance Secretary to the Government of Andhra Pradesh (1993-98) and Joint Secretary in the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India (1988-1993). Dr. Subbarao has wide experience in public finance. In the World Bank, he worked on issues of public finance in countries of Africa and East Asia. He managed a flagship study on decentralisation across major countries of East Asia including China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines and Cambodia. Dr. Subbarao was also involved in initiation of fiscal reforms at the state level. Dr. Subbarao has written extensively on issues in public finance, decentralisation and political economy of reforms. Born on August 11, 1949, Dr. Subbarao holds a B.Sc (Hons) in Physics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and M.Sc in Physics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. Dr. Subbarao also holds an MS degree in Economics from Ohio State University. He was a Humphrey fellow at MIT during 1982-83. He has a Ph.D. in Economics with thesis on fiscal reforms at the sub-national level. Dr. Subbarao was a topper in the All India Civil Service examination for entry into Indian Administrative Services and Indian Foreign Services in 1972. He was one of the first IITians to join the civil service.

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        Dr. Raghuram Rajan - 04-09-2013 to 04-09-2016 -
        Dr. Raghuram Rajan assumed charge as the 23rd Governor of the Reserve Bank of India on September 4, 2013. Prior to this, he was the Chief Economic Advisor, Ministry of Finance, Government of India and the Eric J. Gleacher Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago's Booth School. Between 2003 and 2006, Dr. Rajan was the Chief Economist and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund. Dr. Rajan's research interests are in banking, corporate finance, and economic development, especially the role finance plays in it. He has co-authored Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists with Luigi Zingales in 2003. He then wrote Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy, for which he was awarded the Financial Times-Goldman Sachs prize for best business book in 2010. Dr. Rajan is a member of the Group of Thirty. He was the President of the American Finance Association in 2011 and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In January 2003, the American Finance Association awarded Dr. Rajan the inaugural Fischer Black Prize for the best finance researcher under the age of 40. The other awards he has received include the global Indian of the year award from NASSCOM in 2011, the Infosys prize for the Economic Sciences in 2012, and the Center for Financial Studies-Deutsche Bank Prize for financial economics in 2013. Born on February 3, 1963, Dr. Rajan is married to Radhika and has two children.

        Dr. Urjit R. Patel - 04-09-2016 to date -
        Dr. Urjit R. Patel assumed charge as the twenty-fourth Governor of the Reserve Bank of India effective September 4, 2016 after serving as Deputy Governor since January 2013. He was re-appointed as Deputy Governor on January 11, 2016 after completion of his first three-year term of office. Among his assignments as Deputy Governor, Dr. Patel chaired the Expert Committee to Revise and Strengthen the Monetary Policy Framework. Representing India, he actively participated in steering the signing into force of the inter-governmental treaty and the Inter-Central Bank Agreement (ICBA) among the BRICS nations, which led to the establishment of the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA), a swap line framework among the central banks of these countries. Dr. Patel has also served at the International Monetary Fund (IMF). He was on deputation from the IMF to the Reserve Bank during 1996-1997, and in that capacity he provided advice on development of the debt market, banking sector reforms, pension fund reforms, and evolution of the foreign exchange market. He was a Consultant to the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs), Government of India, from 1998 to 2001. He has also had other assignments in the public and private sectors. Dr. Patel has worked closely with several central and state government high level committees, including the Task Force on Direct Taxes (Kelkar Committee), the High Level Expert Group for Reviewing the Civil & Defence Services Pension System, the Prime Minister’s Task Force on Infrastructure, the Group of Ministers on Telecom Matters, the Committee on Civil Aviation Reforms and the Ministry of Power’s Expert Group on State Electricity Boards. Dr. Patel has several publications in the areas of Indian macroeconomics, monetary policy, public finance, the Indian financial sector, international trade, and regulatory economics. Dr. Patel has a Ph.D in economics from Yale University, an M. Phil from University of Oxford and a B. Sc. from the University of London.


        All information sourced from RBI website here
    • 2. ABBREVIATIONS - WORLD TRADE TERMS
      • ACP - African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

        ASEAN - 
        Association of South-East Asian Nations

        AFTA
        - ASEAN Free Trade Area

        BOP - 
        Balance of Payments

        CACM
         - Central American Common Market

        CARICOM
         - Caribbean Common Market

        CEMAC - 
        Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

        C.I.F. - 
        cost, insurance and freight

        CIS - 
        Commonwealth of Independent States

        COMESA - 
        Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

        ECCAS - 
        Economic Community of Central African States

        ECOWAS - 
        Economic Community of West African States

        EFTA - 
        European Free Trade Association

        EU - 
        European Union    (Write a lovely testimonial for us now!)

        EUROSTAT - 
        Statistical Office of the European Communities

        FAO - 
        Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

        FATS - 
        Foreign Affiliates Statistics

        FDI - 
        Foreign Direct Investment

        F.O.B. - 
        free on board

        GCC - 
        Gulf Co-operation Council

        GDP - 
        Gross Domestic Product

        GNP - 
        Gross National Product

        HS - 
        Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System

        IEA - 
        International Energy Agency

        IMF - 
        International Monetary Fund

        GTIS - 
        Global Trade Information Services Inc.

        ISIC - 
        International Standard Industrial Classification

        LDCs - 
        Least-developed countries

        MERCOSUR - 
        Southern Common Market

        NAFTA - 
        North American Free Trade Agreement

        OECD - 
        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

        SAARC - 
        South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation

        SADC - 
        South African Development Community

        SAPTA - 
        South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement

        SITC - 
        Standard International Trade Classification (Write a few lines of Appreciation for us, here!)

        UNECE - 
        United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

        UNECLAC - 
        United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

        UNIDO - 
        United Nations Industrial Development Organization

        UNSD - 
        United Nations Statistics Division

        WAEMU
         - West African Economic and Monetary Union
    • 3. ABBREVIATIONS - INDIAN ECONOMY 
      • ADR - American Depository Receipt
        AEs - Advanced Economies
        AIFIs - All India Financial Institutions
        AR - Autoregression
        ARIMA - Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average
        ARM - Additional Revenue Mobilisation
        BE - Budget Estimates
        BoJ - Bank of Japan
        BSE - Bombay Stock Exchange
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        bps - Basis Points (100 bps = 1 % point)
        BVAR - Bayesian VAR
        BVARX - Bayesian VARX
        CASA - Current Account and Saving Account
        CBLO - Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligation
        CDs - Certificates of Deposit
        CGA - Controller General of Accounts
        CGST - Central Goods and Services Tax
        CI - Confidence Interval
        CII - Confederation of Indian Industry
        CLI - Composite Leading Indicator
        CMBs - Cash Management Bills
        CMIE - Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy
        CPB - Central Planning Bureau
        CPs - Commercial Papers
        CPC - Central Pay Commission
        CPI - Consumer Price Index
        CPI-AL - Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Labourers
        CPI-IW - Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers
        CPI-RL - Consumer Price Index for Rural Labourers
        CRAR - Capital to Risk-weighted Assets Ratio
        CRR - Cash Reserve Ratio
        CSO - Central Statistics Office
        DGCI&S - Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence & Statistics
        DISCOMs - Distribution Companies
        ECB - European Central Bank
        ECBs - External Commercial Borrowings
        ECM - Error Correction Model
        EMDEs - Emerging Market and Developing Economies
        EMEs - Emerging Market Economies
        EU - European Union
        FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation
        FBs - Foreign Banks
        FCCB - Foreign Currency Convertible Bond
        FCNR - Foreign Currency Non-Resident
        FDI - Foreign Direct Investment
        FICCI - Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
        FI - Financial Institution
        FIMMDA - Fixed Income Money Markets and Derivatives Association
        FIPB - Foreign Investment Promotion Board
        FMCG - Fast Moving Consumer Goods
        FOMC - Federal Open Market Committee
        FPI - Foreign Portfolio Investment
        FRBM - Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management
        FR - Fixed Rate
        FY - Financial Year
        GARCH - Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity
        GDP - Gross Domestic Product
        GDR - Global Depository Receipt
        GFD - Gross Fiscal Deficit
        GFCE - Government Final Consumption Expenditure
        GFCF - Gross Fixed Capital Formation
        GFC - Global Financial Crisis
        GoI - Government of India
        GMM - Generalised Method of Moments
        GNDI - Gross National Disposable Income
        GNPAs - Gross Non-Performing Assets
        G-Secs - Government Securities
        GSDP - Gross State Domestic Product
        GST - Goods and Services Tax
        GVC - Global Value Chain
        GVA - Gross Value Added
        H1 - First Half of the Year
        H2 - Second Half of the Year
        HRA - House Rent Allowance
        ICRR - Incremental Cash Reserve Ratio
        IGARCH - Integrated Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity
        IGST - Integrated Goods and Services Tax
        IIP - Index of Industrial Production
        IOCL - Indian Oil Corporation Limited
        IPO - Initial Public Offering
        IMD - India Meteorological Department
        IMF - International Monetary Fund
        IND-AS - Indian Accounting Standard
        INR - Indian Rupee
        IRF - Impulse Response Function
        ISM - Institute for Supply Management
        JPC - Joint Plant Committee
        LAF - Liquidity Adjustment Facility
        LCR - Liquidity Coverage Ratio
        LIC - Life Insurance Corporation of India
        LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
        M3 - Broad Money
        MA-SV - Moving Average Model with Stochastic Volatility
        mb/d - Million Barrels Per Day
        MCA - Ministry of Corporate Affairs
        MCLR - Marginal Cost of Funds Based Lending Rate
        MGNREGA - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
        MOCI - Ministry of Commerce and Industry
        m-o-m - Month-on-Month
        MPC - Monetary Policy Committee
        MPR - Monetary Policy Report
        MSP - Minimum Support Price
        MSCI - Morgan Stanley Capital International
        MSMEs - Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
        MSS - Market Stabilisation Scheme
        MVK - Multivariate Kalman Filter
        NABARD - National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
        NBFCs - Non-Banking Financial Companies
        NBFCs-D - Deposit-taking NBFCs
        NBFCs-ND-SI - Systemically Important Non-deposit Taking NBFCs
        NCAER - National Council of Applied Economic Research
        NDTL - Net Demand and Time Liabilities
        NDS-CALL- Negotiated Dealing System-Call
        NEER - Nominal Effective Exchange Rate
        NFC - Non-Food Credit
        NIM - Net Interest Margin
        NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
        Non-IT - Non-Information Technology
        NPA - Non-performing Assets (bad loans)
        NSDL - National Securities Depository Limited
        OECD - Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
        OMOs - Open Market Operations
        OPEC - Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
        OROP - One Rank One Pension
        PADO - Public Administration, Defence and Other Services
        PCE - Partial Credit Enhancement
        PCE - Personal Consumption Expenditure
        PC - Phillips Curve
        PFCE - Private Final Consumption Expenditure
        PMI - Purchasing Managers’ Index
        POL - Petroleum, Oil and Lubricant
        PPAC - Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell
        PSBs - Public Sector Banks (Government banks)
        PVBs - Private Sector Banks
        q-o-q - Quarter-on-Quarter  (m-o-m : month-on-month)
        RBI - Reserve Bank of India
        RE - Revised Estimates
        REER - Real Effective Exchange Rate
        RHS - Right Hand Side
        RMSEs - Root Mean Square Errors
        RRBs - Regional Rural Banks
        RW - Random Walk
        SAAR - Seasonally Adjusted Annualised Rate
        SAE - Second Advance Estimates
        SBNs - Specified Bank Notes
        SCBs - Scheduled Commercial Banks
        SDLs - State Development Loans
        SEBI - Securities and Exchange Board of India
        SLR - Statutory Liquidity Ratio
        SUT - Supply and Use Table
        T-Bill - Treasury Bill
        TRAI - Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
        TVW - Time Varying Weights
        TV-GDW - Time Varying Geometrically Backward Decaying Weights
        UDAY - Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana
        USD - US Dollar
        VAR - Vector Autoregression
        VR - Variable Rate
        VARX - Vector Autoregression Model with One Exogenous Variable
        WACR - Weighted Average Call Money Rate
        WALR - Weighted Average Lending Rate
        WADTDR - Weighted Average Domestic Term Deposit Rate
        WAR - Weighted Average Rate
        WPI - Wholesale Price Index
        WTI - West Texas Intermediate
        WTO - World Trade Organisation
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        y-o-y - Year-on-Year
    • 4. ABBREVIATIONS - BANKING AND FINANCE
      • AA - Account Aggregator
        ACU - Asian Clearing Union
        AD - Authorised Dealer
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        ADF - Automated Data Flow
        ADR - American Depository Receipts
        AIFIs - All-India Financial Institutions
        AMRMS - Audit Management and Risk Monitoring System
        ANBC - Adjusted Net Bank Credit
        AQR - Asset Quality Review
        ARCs - Asset Reconstruction Companies
        ARMS - Audit and Risk Management Sub-Committee
        ATBs - Auction Treasury Bills
        ATMs - Automated Teller Machines
        B2B - Business-to-Business
        B2C - Business-to-Consumer
        BAs - Business Areas
        BBB - Banks Board Bureau
        BBPCU - Bharat Bill Payment Central Unit
        BBPOU - Bharat Bill Payment Operating Unit
        BBPS - Bharat Bill Payment System
        BC - Business Correspondent
        BCBS - Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
        BCM - Business Continuity Management
        BCP - Business Continuity Plans
        BCSBI - Banking Codes and Standards Board of India
        BE - Budget Estimates
        BFS - Board for Financial Supervision
        BIA - Business Impact Analysis
        BIS - Bank for International Settlements
        BO - Banking Ombudsman
        BoJ - Bank of Japan
        BoP - Balance of Payment
        BPO - Business Process Outsourcing
        BPR - Business Process Reengineering bps - Basis Points
        BPSS - Board for Payment and Settlement System
        BRBNMPL - Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited
        BRICS - Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
        BSBDA - Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account
        BSC - Building Sub-Committee
        CAB - College of Agricultural Banking
        CAD - Current Account Deficit
        CAFRAL - Centre for Advanced Financial Research and Learning
        CAP - Corrective Action Plan
        CBLO - Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligation
        CBRMC - Central Bank Risk Managers’ Conference
        CBs - Central Banks
        CBS - Core Banking Solution
        CCB - Committee of the Central Board
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        CCC - Cash Coordination Committee
        CCIL - Clearing Corporation of India Limited
        CCP - Central Counter Party
        CCR - Counterparty Credit Risk
        CCSO - Chief Customer Service Offi cer
        CCTV - Closed Circuit Television vii
        CD - Certificate of Deposit
        CDES - Currency Distribution & Exchange Scheme
        CDS - Credit Default Swaps
        CEPD - Consumer Education and Protection Department
        CERT-In - Indian Computer Emergency Response Team
        CGFS - Committee on the Global Financial System
        CGM - Chief General Manager
        CGTMSE - Credit Guarantee Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises
        CIC - Currency in Circulation
        CKYCR - Central Know Your Customer Registry
        CLSS - Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme
        CMA - Currency Management Architecture
        CODs - Central Offi ce Departments
        CoR - Certifi cate of Registration
        CPC - Central Pay Commission
        CPC - Cheque Processing Centre
        CPI - Consumer Price Index
        CPI-AL - Consumer Price Index-Agricultural Labourers
        CPI-C - Consumer Price Index-Combined
        CPI-IW - Consumer Price Index-Industrial Workers
        CPI-RL - Consumer Price Index-Rural Labourers
        CPMI - Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructure
        CPs - Commercial Papers
        CRA - Contingent Reserve Arrangement
        CRILC - Central Repository of Information on Large Credits
        CRR - Cash Reserve Ratio
        CSBD - Corporate Strategy and Budget Management
        CSF - Consolidated Sinking Fund
        CSO - Central Statistics Office
        CTS - Cheque Truncation System
        DBR - Department of Banking Regulation
        DBS - Department of Banking Supervision
        DCBR - Department of Co-operative Bank Regulation
        DCBS - Department of Co-operative Bank Supervision
        DCCBs - District Central Co-operative Banks
        DCS - Department of Corporate Services
        DEIO - Department of External Investmests and Operations
        DEPR - Department of Economic and Policy Research
        DGBA - Department of Government and Bank Accounts
        DICGC - Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation
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        DIF - Deposit Insurance Fund
        DISCOM - Distribution Company
        DIT - Department of Information Technology
        DNBS - Department of Non-Banking Supervision
        DP - Discussion Paper
        DPSS - Department of Payment and Settlement Systems
        DRATs - Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunals
        DRG - Development Research Group
        DRTs - Debt Recovery Tribunals
        DSIM - Department of Statistics and Information Management
        e-baat - Electronic Banking Awareness and Training
        ECB - European Central Bank
        ECBs - External Commercial Borrowings
        ECL - Expected Credit Loss
        ECS - Electronic Clearing Service
        EDMS - Electronic Document Management System
        EDPMS - Export Data Processing and Monitoring System
        EEFC - Exchange Earners’ Foreign Currency
        EMEs - Emerging Market Economies
        EMV - Europay, Mastercard and Visa
        ERM - Enterprise-wide Risk Management
        ESOP - Employee Stock Option|
        ETCD - Exchange Traded Currency Derivatives
        EV - Enterprise Vault
        EWS - Early Warning System
        EXIM Bank - Export Import Bank of India
        FBIL - Financial Benchmark India Private Limited
        FCA - Foreign Currency Assets
        FCCB - Foreign Currency Convertible Bond
        FC-GPR - Foreign Currency Gross Provisional Return
        FCNR(B) - Foreign Currency Non-Resident (Bank) Account
        FCs - Financial Conglomerates
        FC-TRS - Foreign Currency Transfer of Shares
        FCY - Foreign Currency
        FCY-INR - Foreign Currency-Indian Rupee
        FDI - Foreign Direct Investment
        FED - Foreign Exchange Department
        FEMA - Foreign Exchange Management Act
        FER - Foreign Exchange Reserves
        FETERS - Foreign Exchange Transactions Electronic Reporting System
        FFMC - Full Fledged Money Changers
        FIAC - Financial Inclusion Advisory Committee
        FIDD - Financial Inclusion Development Department
        FIF - Financial Inclusion Fund
        FII - Foreign Institutional Investor
        FIMMDA - Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association of India
        FinTech - Financial Technology
        FIP - Financial Inclusion Plan
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        FIRM - Food Infl ation Research and Measurement
        FIT - Flexible Infl ation Targeting
        FITF - Financial Inclusion Technology Fund
        FLCs - Financial Literacy Centers
        FMIs - Financial Market Infrastructures
        FMOD - Financial Markets Operations Department
        FMRD - Financial Markets Regulation Department
        FOMC - Federal Open Market Committee
        FPI - Foreign Portfolio Investment
        FSAP - Financial Sector Assessment Programme
        FSB - Financial Stability Board
        FSDC - Financial Stability and Development Council
        FSDC-SC - Financial Stability and Development Council Sub committee
        FSR - Financial Stability Report
        FSU - Financial Stability Unit
        FWG - Framework Working Group
        GCC - General Credit Card
        GDP - Gross Domestic Product
        GDR - Global Depository Receipts
        GFCE - Government Final Consumption Expenditure
        GFCF - Gross Fixed Capital Formation
        GFD - Gross Fiscal Defi cit
        GFSG - Green Finance Study Group
        GNDI - Gross National Disposable Income
        GoI - Government of India
        GRF - Guarantee Redemption Funds
        G-secs - Government Securities
        GSIBs - Global Systemically Important Banks
        GST - Goods and Services Tax
        GSTN - Goods and Services Tax Network
        GVA - Gross Value Added
        HFCs - Housing Finance Companies
        HPC - High Powered Committee on UCBs
        HQLA - High Quality Liquid Assets
        HRMD - Human Resource Management Department
        HRM-SC - Human Resource Management Sub-Committee
        HTM - Held-to-Maturity
        IADI - International Association of Deposit Insurers
        IASS - Integrated Accounting Software Solution
        IBA - Indian Banks’ Association
        IBS - International Banking Statistics
        ICD - Institute for Capacity Development
        ICSDs - International Central Securities Depositories
        ICT - Information & Communication Technology
        IDBI - Industrial Development Bank of India
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        IDPMS - Import Data Processing and Monitoring System
        IDRBT - Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology
        IFC - International Finance Corporation
        IFCs - Infrastructure Finance Companies
        IFI - International Financial Institution
        IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards
        IFTAS - Indian Financial Technology and Allied Services
        IGIDR - Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research
        IIBM - International Instit ute of Business Management
        IIP - Index of Industrial Production
        IMF - International Monetary Fund
        IMPS - Immediate Payment Service
        Ind AS - Indian Accounting Standards
        INR - Indian Rupee
        IORWG - International Operational Risk Working Group
        IOSCO - International Organisation of Securities Commission
        IPOs - Initial Public Offerings
        IRDA - Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority
        IRF - Inter-Regulatory Forum
        IRS - Interest Rate Swaps
        IRTG - Inter-Regulatory Technical Group
        IS - Information Security
        ISI - Indian Statistical Institute
        ISO - International Standardisation Organisation
        ISOC - Information Security Operations Centre
        ISPB - Index of Service Production for Banking Sector
        IT - Information Technology
        ITBs - Intermediate Treasury Bills
        IT-SC - Information Technology Sub-Committee
        JLF - Joint Lenders’ Forum
        KCC - Kisan Credit Card
        kWp - Kilowatt Peak
        KYC - Know Your Customer
        LABs - Local Area Banks
        LAF - Liquidity Adjustment Facility
        LCR - Liquidity Coverage Ratio
        LEF - Large Exposures Framework
        LEI - Legal Entity Identifier
        LLP - Limited Liability Partnership
        LMS - Litigation Management System
        LPA - Long Period Average
        LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
        MAT - Minimum Alternate Tax
        MCA - Ministry of Corporate Affairs
        MCCs - Mega Currency Chests
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        MCLR - Marginal Cost of Funds Based Lending Rate
        MDR - Merchant Discount Rates
        MEP - Minimum Export Price
        MFI - Multilateral Financial Institution
        MIBOR - Mumbai Inter-bank Offer Rate
        MICR - Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
        MIS - Management Information System
        MIU - Market Intelligence Unit
        MMS - Mail Messaging System
        MGNREGA - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
        MoP - Ministry of Power
        MoU - Memorandum of Understanding
        MPC - Monetary Policy Committee
        MPD - Monetary Policy Department
        MPFA - Monetary Policy Framework Agreement
        MPR - Monetary Policy Report
        MSCI - Morgan Stanley Capital International
        MSEs - Micro and Small Enterprises
        MSF - Marginal Standing Facility
        MSMEs - Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
        MSPs - Minimum Support Prices
        MTDS - Medium-Term Debt Management Strategy
        MTF - Medium-Term Framework
        MTS - Mass Transit System
        MTSS - Money Transfer Service Scheme
        NABARD - National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
        NACH - National Automated Clearing House
        NAMCABS - National Mission for Capacity Building of Bankers for Financing
        MSME Sector
        NBFC - Non-Banking Financial Company
        NBFC-AA - NBFC- Account Aggregator
        NDA - Net Domestic Assets
        NDS-OM - Negotiated Dealing System-Order Matching
        NDTL - Net Demand and Time Liabilities
        NEFT - National Electronic Funds Transfer
        NFA - Net Foreign Assets
        NFC - Non Food Credit
        NFS - National Financial Switch
        NGOs - Non-Government Organisations
        NHB - National Housing Bank
        NIBM - National Institute of Bank Management
        NOF - Net Owned Funds
        NOFHC - Non-Operative Financial Holding Company
        NPA - Non-Performing Asset
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        NPCI - National Payments Corporation of India
        NPI - Non-Performing Investment
        NPLL - Normally Permitted Lending Limit
        NPS - National Pension System
        NRIs - Non-Resident Indians
        NRLM - National Rural Livelihood Mission
        NRO - Non-Resident Ordinary Rupee
        NSEL - National Spot Exchange Limited
        NSFR - Net Stable Funding Ratio
        OBE - Off Balance Sheet Exposures
        OBO - Offi ce of Banking Ombudsman
        OD - Overdraft Facility
        O-in-Charge - Offi cer-in-Charge
        OMO - Open Market Operations
        ORM - Operational Risk Management
        OROP - One Rank One Pension
        OSMOS - Off-Site Monitoring and Surveillance System
        OTC - Over the Counter
        P2P - Peer-to-Peer
        PACS - Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies
        PDMA - Public Debt Management Agency
        PDs - Primary Dealers
        PFCE - Private Final Consumption Expenditure
        PFMIs - Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures
        PIOs - Person of Indian Origin
        PMG - Project Monitoring Group
        PMI - Purchasing Managers Index
        PMJDY - Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana
        POL - Petroleum, Oil and Lubricant
        PoP - Point of Presence
        PoS - Point of Sale
        PPIs - Prepaid Payment Instruments
        PSBs - Public Sector Banks
        PSLCs - Priority Sector Lending Certificates
        PSOs - Payment System Operators
        PSS - Payment and Settlement Systems Act
        PSU - Public Sector Unit/Undertaking
        QCCP - Qualifi ed Central Counterparty
        QIB - Qualifi ed Institutional Buyer
        QPM - Quarterly Projection Model
        RAF - Risk Appetitie Framework
        RBI - Reserve Bank of India
        RBIA - Risk-Based Internal Audit
        RBIQ - Reserve Bank of India Quiz
        RBS - Risk-Based Supervision
        RBSC - Reserve Bank Staff College
        RD - Revenue Deficit
        RDDBFI - Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions
        RDs - Regional Directors
        RE - Revised Estimate
        ReBIT - Reserve Bank Information Technology Private Limited
        REER - Real Effective Exchange Rate
        RFP - Request For Proposal
        RGG - Returns Governance Group
        RGS - Risk Governance Structure
        RHF - Rural Housing Fund
        RIDF - Rural Infrastructure Development Fund
        RM - Reserve Money
        RMD - Risk Monitoring Department
        RO - Regional Office
        RoA - Return on Assets
        RRBs - Regional Rural Banks
        RRs - Risk Registers
        RTGS - Real Time Gross Settlement System
        RTI - Right to Information Act
        RTL - Risk Tolerance Limit
        RTS - Risk Tolerance Statement
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        SAARC - South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
        SARFAESI - Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest
        SBAs - Small Borrowal Accounts
        SBI - State Bank of India
        SCB - Scheduled Commercial Banks
        SDDS - Special Data Dissemination Standards
        SDL - State Development Loans
        SDR - Strategic Debt Restructuring
        SEACEN - South East Asian Central Banks
        SEBI - Securities and Exchanges Board of India
        SFBs - Small Finance Banks
        SFDB - SAARCFINANCE database
        SFMS - Structured Financial Messaging System
        SFS - State Finance Secretaries
        SG - State Government
        SGB - Sovereign Gold Bond
        SHGs - Self-Help Groups
        SIDBI - Small Industries Development Bank of India
        SIDSPL - SWIFT India Domestic Services Private Limited
        SIFMIs - Systemically Important Financial Market Infrastructures
        SLBCs - State Level Bankers’ Committees
        SLR - Statutory Liquidity Ratio
        SME - Small and Medium Enterprises
        SNRR - Special Non- Resident Rupee
        SPARC - Supervisory Programme for Assessment of Risk and Capital
        SPMCIL - Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited
        SRs - Security Receipts
        StCBs - State Co-operative Banks
        STOs - State Treasury Offices
        STP - Straight-Through Processing
        STRIPS - Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities
        SWIFT - Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication
        SWIPS - System-Wide Important Payment Systems
        TAC - Technical Advisory Committee
        TAG - Technical Advisory Group
        T-Bills - Treasury Bills
        TDS - Tax Deduction at Source
        TE - Training Establishment
        TLAC - Total Loss Absorption Capacity
        TReDS - Trade Receivable and Discounting System
        TV - Television
        UAE - United Arab Emirates
        UCBs - Urban Co-operative Banks
        UDAY - Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana
        UHF - Urban Housing Fund
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        UN-ESCAP - United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
        VAPT - Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing
        VaR - Value at Risk
        VECM - Vector Error Correction Model
        VOFs - Visiting Officers Flat
        WACR - Weighted Average Call Rate
        WALR - Weighted Average Lending Rate
        WI - When Issued
        WLAs - White Label ATMs
        WMA - Ways and Means Advances
        WP - Working Paper
        WPI - Wholesale Price Index
        XBRL - eXtensible Business Reporting Language
        y-o-y - Year-on-Year
    • 5. TIMELINE OF AADHAR
      • 2006 : The ministry of communications and information technology approves the ‘Unique ID for Below Poverty Line (BPL) families’ project under the chairmanship of Arvind Virmani, then principal advisor, Planning Commission
        2008 : Empowered group of ministers formed by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh decides to collate two schemes — the National Population Register under the Citizenship Act, 1955 and the UID project — to conceive Aadhaar.
        2009 : Planning Commission issues a notification to constitute the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).Government appoints Infosys co-founder Nandan Nilekani as the first chairman of UIDAI, with the rank and status of a cabinet minister.
        2012 : Former Karnataka high court judge justice K Puttaswamy files a public interest litigation before the Supreme Court (SC) declaring that Aadhaar violates an individual’s right to privacy and that the scheme lacks legislative backing.
        2014 : In an interim order, the SC restrains the UIDAI from transferring biometric information with an Aadhaar number to any other agency without the individual’s consent in writing. 
        2015 : Three-judge bench of the apex court rules the unique identity number is not mandatory to avail of benefits from government programmes, restricting the use of Aadhaar to beneficiaries of the public distribution system and subsidies on cooking gas and kerosene, and refers the question on privacy to a larger constitution bench. Centre moves SC seeking a review and modification of the August 11 interim order. A five-judge constitution bench modifies the same and extends the use of Aadhaar to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, Jan Dhan Yojana, pensions and the Employees’ Provident Fund scheme.
        2016 : Finance minister Arun Jaitley announces in the budget speech that the government will offer statutory backing for Aadhaar. The Lok Sabha passes the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016 as a Money Bill, rejecting Rajya Sabha recommendations.
        2017 : Aadhaar is made mandatory for three dozen schemes with 84 more expected under direct benefit transfers, including midday meal scheme and universal education. SC again rules that Aadhaar cannot be made mandatory for welfare schemes.
    • 5. AADHAR D-B-T FAQs
      • How to update my Aadhaar in ration card? We recommend that you submit a photocopy of your Aadhaar with a copy of ration card to your PDS shop. They may ask you to place a finger on a sensor to authenticate to check that you and your Aadhaar number are matched.
        Name different in Aadhaar vis-à-vis service delivery database? 
        Based on which document needs name correction, such document should be corrected. In case the name correction is to be done in Aadhaar, then you can visit the nearest permanent enrolment center to update your name, age, address, mobile number and other demographic details (list available at www.uidai.gov.in). Based on update needs documentary proof you will be needed to bring proof for identity and correspondence address.
        My fingers do not work, when asked to place them on finger print device? 
        You can visit the nearest permanent enrolment center to update your biometrics (list available at www.uidai.gov.in). We suggest that you carry proofs for identity and correspondence address. Also, we strongly recommend that you give mobile number, this will help you get confirmation message as when your records are updated.
        Have multiple accounts, where will I receive the money? 
        Please give your copy of Aadhaar letter with your bank account number written on it or copy of your bank passbook. The bank may require you to fill a form as well. Updating your mobile number in bank is also advisable. This will send out SMS alerts when you get DBT in account or you transact on your account. Please note that the bank account which has been seeded last with the Aadhaar number will be the one to receive money through DBT.
        Do I need Aadhaar to get my DBT? 
        Most of the schemes are seeking Aadhaar number to identify the beneficiaries to remove fakes and duplicates from their database. It is strongly recommended that you give them Aadhaar to assist them and yourself to get the benefits. If you do not have Aadhaar, you can always present your Enrolment ID No. (EID), or submit the request with service delivery database owner to get Enroled for Aadhaar with the stated ID documents. This will allow you to continue getting the benefits, subsidy or services without any restrictions. 
        How do I change my account where to receive DBT funds? 
        Please give your copy of Aadhaar letter with your bank account number written on it or copy of your bank passbook to the bank where you want to receive the funds. The bank may require you to fill a form as well. Updating your mobile number in bank is also advisable. This will send out SMS alerts when you get DBT in account or you transact on your account. 
        How would I know that DBT funds have come to my account? 
        We recommend that you update your mobile number in bank. The Bank will send out SMS alerts when you get DBT in account or you transact on your account. Alternatively, you can also check your account balance using ATM, microATM/ Bank Mitra, internet banking or calling the bank for details of your transactions. 
        What all can I do using a Bank mitra, who visits my village? 
        Bank Mitra carries a handheld device, which can allow you multiple type of banking transactions on your Aadhaar linked Bank account. Transactions possible are Balance, Enquiry, Cash Deposit, Cash Withdrawal, Paying Bills, Remitting funds to other Aadhaar holder.
        How does Aadhaar base DBT help me as a beneficiary? 
        Aadhaar seeding your scheme ensures that nobody else can claim your share of the benefits by impersonating you as a person. Also, in case of cash transfers, the money reaches directly to you Aadhaar linked bank account. You do not have to pursue different people to get the funds, besides you can decide which bank account you want to take money in. But all benefits go to your latest Aadhaar linked bank account. You cannot decide that one will go to one bank account and another one to the other bank account.
        Why are Government schemes asking for Aadhaar? 
        It helps schemes to clean out duplicates and fakes, to provide accurate data and enable implementation of direct benefit programs. This overall reduces the costs of identifying person and provides surplus benefits to others who need these benefits.
    • 6. LIST OF ALL CHIEF JUSTICES OF INDIAN SUPREME COURT
      • 1. H. J. Kania - 26 January 1950 to 6 November 1951 (649 days)Bombay High Court

        2.
         
        M. Patanjali Sastri - 7 November 1951to 3 January 1954 (788 days), Madras High Court

        3
        Mehr Chand Mahajan - 4 January 1954to 22 December 1954 (352 days), East Punjab High Court

        4Bijan Kumar Mukherjea - 23 December 1954 to 31 January 1956 (404 days), Calcutta High Court

        5
        Sudhi Ranjan Das1 February 1956to 30 September 1959 (1337 days), Calcutta High Court

        6
        Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha1 October 1959 to 31 January 1964 (1583 days), Patna High Court
        7
        Prahlad Balacharya Gajendragadkar1 February 1964 to 15 March 1966 (773 days), Bombay High Court

        8
        Amal Kumar Sarkar, 16 March 1966 to 29 June 1966 (105 days), Calcutta High Court

        9.
         
        Koka Subba Rao30 June 1966 to 11 April 1967 (285 days), Madras High Court

        10
        Kailas Nath Wanchoo12 April 1967 to 24 February 1968 (318 days), Allahabad High Court

        11
        Mohammad Hidayatullah, 25 February 1968 to 16 December 1970 (1025 days), Bombay High Court Zakir Hussain

        12
        Jayantilal Chhotalal Shah17 December 1970 to 21 January 1971 (35  days), Bombay High Court

        13
        Sarv Mittra Sikri22 Jan 1971 to 25 April 1973 (824 days) Lahore High Court

        14
        Ajit Nath Ray26 April 1973 to 27 January 1977 (1372 days) Calcutta High Court

        15
        Mirza Hameedullah Beg, 28 January 1977 to 21 February 1978 (389 days) Allahabad High Court

        16
        Yeshwant Vishnu Chandrachud22 February 1978 to 11 July 1985 (2696 days) Bombay High Court

        17
        Prafullachandra Natwarlal Bhagwati12 July 1985 to 20 December 1986 (526 days) Gujarat High Court     

        18
        Raghunandan Swarup Pathak21 December 1986 to 18 June 1989‡(940 days) Allahabad High Court

        19. 
        Engalaguppe Seetharamiah Venkataramiah19 June 1989 to 17 December 1989 (181 days) Karnataka High Court

        20. 
        Sabyasachi Mukharji18 December 1989 to 25 September 1990 (281 days) Calcutta High Court

        21
        Ranganath Misra26 September 1990 to 24 November 1991 (424 days) Orissa High Court

        22
        Kamal Narain Singh25 November 1991 to 12 December 1991 (17 days) Allahabad High Court

        23
        Madhukar Hiralal Kania13 December 1991 to 17 November 1992 (340 days) Bombay High Court

        24
        Lalit Mohan Sharma18 November 1992 to 11 February 1993 (85 days) Patna High Court

        25
        Manepalli Narayana Rao Venkatachaliah12 February 1993 to 24 October 1994 (619 days) Karnataka High Court

        26
        Aziz Mushabber Ahmadi25 October 1994 to 24 March 1997 (881 days) Gujarat High Court

        27
        Jagdish Sharan Verma25 March 1997 to 17 January 1998 (298 days) Madhya Pradesh High Court

        28
        Madan Mohan Punchhi, 18 January 1998 to 9 October 1998 (264 days) Punjab and Haryana High Court

        29
        Adarsh Sein Anand10 October 1998 to 11 January 2001 (824 days) Jammu and Kashmir High Court

        30
        Sam Piroj Bharucha11 January 2001 to 6 May 2002 (480 days) Bombay High Court

        31
        Bhupinder Nath Kirpal6 May 2002  to 8 November 2002 (186 days) Delhi High Court

        32
        Gopal Ballav Pattanaik, 8 November 2002 to 19 December 2002 (41 dasy) Orissa High Court

        33
        V. N. Khare, 19 Dec 2002 to 2 May 2004 (500  days) Allahabad High Court

        34
        S. Rajendra Babu, 2 May 2004 to 1 June 2004 (30 days) Karnataka High Court

        35
        Ramesh Chandra Lahoti, 1 June 2004 to 1 November 2005 (518 days) Madhya Pradesh High Court

        36
        Yogesh Kumar Sabharwal1 November 2005 to 13 January 2007 (438 days) Delhi High Court

        37
        K. G. Balakrishnan13 January 2007 to 11 May 2010 (1214 days) Kerala High Court

        38
        S. H. Kapadia12 May 2010 to 28 Sep 2012 (870 days) Bombay High Court

        39
        Altamas Kabir29 September 2012 to 18 July 2013 (292 days) Calcutta High Court

        40
        P. Sathasivam19 July 2013 to 26 April 2014 (281 days) Madras High Court

        41
        Rajendra Mal Lodha27 April 2014 to 27 September 2014 (153 days) Rajasthan High Court

        42
        H. L. Dattu28 September 2014 to 2 December 2015 (430 days) Karnataka High Court

        43
        T. S. Thakur3 December 2015 to 3 January 2017 (397 days) Jammu and Kashmir High Court

        44
        Jagdish Singh Khehar4 January 2017 - 27 August (236 days) Punjab and Haryana High Court
        45. Dipal Mishra, 28 August 2017 - Incumbent ( ... ) Odisha High Court

    • 7. TERMINOLOGIES USED - ECONOMIC SURVEY PART II - AUGUST 2017
      • AAS Agrometeorological Advisory ServicesAAY Antyodaya Anna Yojana
        ABP Area Based Projects
        AE Advance Estimates
        AEPS Aadhar Enabled Payment System
        AFB Adaptation Fund Board
        AIDIS All India Debt and Investment Survey
        APL Above Poverty Line
        APMC AgriculturalProduce Marketing Committee
        APY Atal Pension Yojana
        ARM Additional Resource Mobilization
        ARPU Average Revenue per User
        ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
        ASER Annual Status of Education Report
        ASI Annual Survey of Industries
        AUM Asset Under Management
        BC Benefit Cost
        BCD Basic Custom Duty
        BCM Billion Cubic Meter
        BE Budget Estimates
        BHIM Bharat Interface for Money
        BPL Below Poverty Line
        BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
        BSBD Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account
        BUR Biennial Update Report
        BVS Biodegradable Vascular Scaffolds
        CAA&A Controller of Aid Accounts and Audit
        CACP Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
        CAD Coronary Artery Disease
        CBDR-RC Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities
        CBR Crude Birth Rate
        CDR Crude Death Rate
        CECA Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement
        CFPI Consumer Food Price Index
        CGA Controller General of Accounts
        CGST Central Goods and Services Tax
        CHE Current Health Expenditure
        CIC Currency in circulation
        CIN Corporate Identity Number
        CIP Central Issue Price
        CIPHET Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology
        CKM Circuit Kilometer
        COP 21 21st Conference of Parties
        CPI (AL) Consumer Price Index (Agricultural Labourers)
        CPI (C) Consumer Price Index (Combined)
        CPI (IW) Consumer Price Index (Industrial Workers)
        CPI (RL) Consumer Price Index (Rural Labourers)
        CPI TC Consumer Price Index True Core
        CPI Consumer Price Index
        CPSE Central Public Sector Enterprises
        CRAR Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets Ratio
        CSO Central Statistical Office
        CV Coefficient of Variation
        CVDs Cardiovascular Diseases
        CWP Currency with Public
        DAC&FW Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare
        DAE Direct Access Entity
        DAY-NRLM DeendayalAntyodayaYojana -National Rural Livelihoods Mission
        DAY-NULM DeendayalAntyodayaYojana -National Urban Livelihoods Mission
        DBT Direct Benefit Transfer
        DCP Decentralised Procurement
        DDUGJY DeenDayalUpadhyaya Gram JyotiYojana
        DES Directorate of Economics & Statistics
        DII Domestic Institutional Investors
        DIPP Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion
        DISCOMs Distribution Companies
        DISE District Information System for Education
        ECA Essential Commodities Act
        ECB External Commercial Borrowing
        EHR Electronic Health Record
        EMDEs Emerging Market and Developing Economies
        EMEs Emerging Market Economies
        e-NAM Electronic National Agriculture Market
        EO Earth Observation
        EPFO Employees' Provident Fund Organisation
        ESA European Space Agency
        ESIC Employees' State Insurance Corporation
        EUS Employment and Unemployment Survey
        FAITH Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism & Hospitality
        FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
        FCCB Foreign currency Convertible Bonds
        FCI Food CorporationofIndia
        FCNR (B) Foreign Currency Non-Resident (Banks)
        FDI Foreign Direct Investment
        FEEs Foreign Exchange Earnings
        FIG Farmer Interest Group
        FII Foreign Institutional Investor
        FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion Board
        FIR First Information Report
        FPO Farmer Producer Organisation
        FRBM Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management
        FRL Fiscal Responsibility Legislation
        FTA Free Trade Agreement
        FY Financial Year
        GCCA Grants for creation of capital assets
        GDI Gender Development Index
        GDP Gross Direct Premium
        GDP Gross Domestic Product
        GEC Green Energy Corridor
        GEF Global Environment Facility
        GER Gross Enrolment Ratio
        GFCF Gross Fixed Capital Formation
        GHI Global Hunger Index
        GLC Ground Level Credit
        GM Genetically Modified
        GM Geometric Mean
        GNI Gross National Income
        GNPA Gross Non-Performing Advances
        GPI Gender Parity Index
        GSDP Gross State Domestic Product
        GSLV Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
        GST Goods and Services Tax
        GSVA Gross State Value Added
        GVA Gross Value Added
        GW Gigawatt
        HDI Human Development Index
        HDR Human Development Report
        HFCs Housing Finance Companies
        HYVs High Yielding Varieties
        IaaS Infrastructure as a Service
        IBBI Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India
        IBC Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
        IC Interest Coverage
        ICTs Information and Communication Technologies
        IEA International Energy Agency
        IEC Importer Exporter Code
        IGS International Ground Stations
        IGST Integrated Goods and Services Tax
        IIP Index of Industrial Production
        IIPS International Institute for Population Sciences
        IMF International Monetary Fund
        IMR Infant Mortality Rate
        InvITs Infrastructure Investment Trusts
        IOI Incidence of Indebtedness
        IoT Internet of Things
        IPC Indian Penal Code
        IQR Interquartile Range
        IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency
        ISS Interest Subvention Scheme
        IT Information Technology
        ITA International Tourist Arrivals
        IT-BPM Information Technology-Business Process
        Management
        ITC Input Tax Credit
        ITIs Industrial Training Institutes
        ITR International Tourism Receipts
        JLF Joint Lenders Forum
        KMS Kharif Marketing Season
        KW Kilowatt
        KWH Kilowatt-Hour
        LEB Life Expectancy at Birth
        LEO Low Earth Orbit
        LTRCF Long Term Rural Credit Fund
        LULUCF Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry
        M0 Reserve Money
        M3 Broad Money
        MBPS Megabits per Second
        MDDS Metadata and Data Standards
        MDM Mid-Day Meal
        MEIS Merchandise Exports from India Scheme
        MEP Minimum Export Price
        MGNREGA Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
        MGNREGS Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
        MHRD Ministry of Human Resource Development 
        MI Micro Irrigation
        MIDH Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
        MMR Maternal Mortality Ratio
        MMT Million Metric Tonne
        MNREGA Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
        MOSPI Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
        MPC Monetary Policy Committee
        MSDE Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
        MSF Marginal Standing Facility
        MSME Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
        MSP Minimum Support Price
        MT Metric Tonne
        MVA Mega Volt Amp
        MW Megawatt
        NABARD National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development
        NAFCC National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change
        NAM National Agriculture Market
        NAPCC National Action Plan on Climate Change
        NAR Net Attendance Ratio
        NAREDCO National Real Estate Development Council
        NASSCOM National Association of Software and Services Companies
        NBFS Non-Banking Financial Sector
        NCEEF National Clean Energy and Environment Fund
        NCRB National Crime Records Bureau
        NCT National Capital Territory
        NCTF National Committee on Trade Facilitation
        NDC Nationally Determined Contribution
        NDDB National Dairy Development Board
        NDHA National Digital Health Authority
        NDTL Net Demand & Time Liabilities
        NEER Nominal Effective Exchange Rate
        NEFT National Electronic Funds Transfer
        NER Net Enrolment Ratio
        NER North Eastern Region
        NFHS National Family Health Survey
        NFSA National Food Security Act
        NGCP National Green Corridor Programme
        NHA National Health Accounts
        NIC National Industrial Classification
        NITI National Institution for Transforming India
        NLEM National List of Essential Medicines
        NPA Non-Performing Assets
        NPISH Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households
        NPK Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
        NPPA National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority
        NPS National Pension Scheme/System
        NRI Non-Resident Indian
        NSDC National Skill Development Corporation
        NSQF National Skills Qualifications Framework
        NSS National Sample Survey
        NSS/O National Sample Survey/Office
        NSSF National Small Savings Fund
        NSSO National Sample Survey Office
        NTBs Non-Tariff Barriers
        OBCs Other Backward Classes
        ODF Open Defecation Free
        OECD Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
        OFCB Overseas Foreign Currency Borrowings
        OMO Open Market Operations
        OMSS Open Market Sale Scheme
        OOI Other Operating Income
        OoP Out of Pocket
        OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
        P/E Price/Earnings
        PA Provisional Actuals
        PaaS Platform-as-a-Service
        PAED Publicly Available Environmental Data
        PAHAL PratyakshHanstantritLabh
        PAT Perform Achieve Trade
        PAT Profit After Tax
        PCA Prompt Corrective Action
        PDS Public Distribution System
        PE Provisional Estimates
        PG Post Graduate
        PGCIL Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
        PLF Plant Load Factor
        PMAY Pradhan MantriAwasYojana
        PMJDY Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana
        PMJJBY Pradhan MantriJeevanJyotiBimaYojana
        PMKSY Prime Minister's KrishiSinchaiYojana
        PMKVY Pradhan MantriKaushalVikasYojana
        PMSBY Pradhan Mantri Suraksha BimaYojana
        POL Petroleum Oil and Lubricant
        PPA Purchasing Power Agreement
        PPP Purchasing Power Parity
        PROBE Public Report on Basic Education
        PSBs Public Sector Banks
        PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
        PTR Pupil Teacher Ratio
        PVBs Private Sector Banks
        QE Quantitative Easing
        QES Quarterly Employment Survey
        RBI Reserve Bank of India
        RCEP Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
        RCS Regional Air Connectivity Scheme
        RE Revised Estimates
        REER Real Effective Exchange Rate
        REITs Real Estate Investment Trust
        RES Renewable Energy Sources
        RGI Registrar General of India
        RHS Right Hand Side
        RKM Route Kilometer
        RMS Rabi Marketing Season
        RMSA RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan
        ROA Return on Assets
        ROE Return on Equity
        RRB Regional Rural Banks
        RTE Right To Education
        RTGS Real Time Gross Settlement
        S4A Sustainable Structuring of Stressed Assets
        SaaS Software as a Service
        SAD Special Additional Duty
        SAP Swachhta Action Plan
        SAPCC State Action Plans on Climate Change
        SBM-G Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin
        SBNs Specified Bank Notes
        SCB Scheduled Commercial Bank
        SCs Scheduled Castes
        SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
        SDL State Development Loans
        SDR Special Drawing Right
        SDR Strategic Debt Restructure
        SEBI Securities and Exchange Board of India
        SECC Socio Economic Caste Census
        SEIS Services Exports from India Scheme
        SEQI Social Education Quality Index
        SGST State Goods and Services Tax
        SHGs Self Help Groups
        SMBs Server Message Block
        SPV Solar Photo Voltaic
        SSA SarvaShikshaAbhiyan
        STaaS Storage as a Service
        STRI Services Trade Restrictiveness Index
        STs Scheduled Tribes
        Sub-GTO Sub-Geo Transfer Orbit
        SUUTI Specified Undertaking for Unit Trust of India
        TBS Twin Balance Sheet
        TFR Total Fertility Rate
        TFS Trade Facilitation in Services
        TIES Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme
        TISA Trade in Services Agreement
        TPDS Targeted Public Distribution System
        TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership
        TRAI Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
        UDAN UdeDeshKaAamNaagrik
        UDAY Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana
        UN United Nations
        UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
        UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
        UNWTO United Nation's World Tourism Organization
        USD United States Dollar
        USEIA United States Energy Information Administration
        UTs Union Territories
        VAT Value Added Tax
        VNR Voluntary National Review
        WPI Wholesale Price Index
        WTO World Trade Organization
        WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council
    • LIST ENDS HERE
      • The static compilation ends here





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Civils Tapasya portal - by PT's IAS Academy: PT Static Repository
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