Power of Apti - Lesson 4


Power of Apti - Lesson 4

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Power of Apti - Maths / Arithmetic Questions

Basics of calculations # 4


Power of Apti - Maths / Arithmetic Video Solutions


Basics of calculations # 4

Power of Apti - Maths / Arithmetic Solutions


Basics of calculations # 4


Power of Apti - Language / Vocab / RC     

Reading Comprehension Exercise # 1

Given below is a passage followed by questions. Read the passage and answer the questions accordingly. 


A field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things, gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation, and in its narrowest sense, is concerned only with the human body. Gross anatomy customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined without the help of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy is concerned with the study of structural units small enough to be seen only with a light microscope. Dissection is basic to all anatomical research. The earliest record of its use was made by the Greeks and Theophrastus, called “dissection anatomy”, from “ana temnein”, meaning “to cut up.”

Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.

This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the world’s oldest civilisations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of body resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, the Greek Herophilus, who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the second century AD, the Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorised for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for the Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to “restore” the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem – “The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”, which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galen’s authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

From Vesalius’ exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabricius’ detailed descriptions of the venous valves.

The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research. Primitive early microscopes enabled Marcello Malpighi to discover the system of tiny capillaries connecting the arterial and venous networks, Robert Hooke to first observe the small compartments in plants that he called “cells,” and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek to observe muscle fibres and spermatozoa. Thenceforth, attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of body structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size.

The use of the microscope in discovering minute, previously unknown features was pursued on a more systematic basis in the 18th century but progress tended to be slow until technical improvements in the compound microscope itself, beginning in the 1830s with the gradual development of achromatic lenses, greatly increased the instrument’s resolving power. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognise, in 1838-39, that the cell is the fundamental unit of organisation in all living things. The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections. In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organisation from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century, anatomists tended to scrutinise tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the 1950s and became the prime tool of anatomical research. About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspeciality of molecular anatomy.

Scientific names for the parts and structures of the human body are usually in Latin; for example, the name “musculus biceps brachii” denotes the biceps muscle of the upper arm. Some such names were bequeathed to Europe by ancient Greek and Roman writers and many more were coined by European anatomists from the 16th century onwards. Expanding medical knowledge meant the discovery of many body structures and tissues but there was no uniformity of nomenclature and thousands of new names were added as each medical writer followed his own fancy, usually expressing it in a Latin form. By the end of the 19th century, the confusion caused by the enormous number of names had become intolerable. Medical dictionaries sometimes listed as many as 20 synonyms for one name and more than 50,000 names were in use throughout Europe. In 1887, the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardising the nomenclature and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in 1895 that reduced the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, the Basle Nomina Anatomica, had to be subsequently expanded and, in 1955, the Sixth International Anatomical Congress at Paris approved a major revision of it known as the Paris Nomina Anatomica.

1. Galen’s authority got challenged and became unacceptable because of

(1) the accurate anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci
(2) the discovery of the ancient texts written by Erasistratus
(3) the critical and the questioning attitude propagated by Vesalius
(4) De humani corporis fabrica libri septem

2. Dissecting the human body was a taboo for the oldest civilisations because

(1) the smell of the corpse offended the sensibilities of those performing the dissecting acts
(2) there was the fear apparently that God would be angry
(3) they believed in life after death and in the resurrection of the body
(4) they considered it to be unhygienic

3. Gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy relate respectively to

(1) the study of large body structures and the study of microscopic structures
(2) staining and dissection
(3) the study of major body structures and their dissection
(4) taxonomy and paleontology

4. Which of the following is untrue?

(1) Cytology is the study of cells
(2) Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century
(3) More than 20,000 anatomical terms were in use towards the end of the seventeenth century
(4) European medicine was heavily dependent on Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy and not on direct observation as a tool of its anatomical knowledge

5. The passage is most likely taken from

(1) an article on the development of anatomy
(2) a write up in the fortnightly “A Sniff of News”, published by the Bhaura group of publications, Sultanabad
(3) a presentation in a symposium organised by a leading cultural group of the town
(4) a rejoinder to the destructive influence of the Church in scuttling human pursuits in the realm of scientific discovery

Power of Apti - Language / Vocab / RC Video Solutions   

Reading Comprehension Exercise # 1

Power of Apti - Language / Vocab / RC Solutions

Reading Comprehension Exercise # 1

SOLUTIONS (view video above to understand in depth)

1. Ans.(3). The fourth paragraph says that Vesalius encouraged the younger generation of scientists to question received truths and not to accept facts blindly, which undermined Galen’s authority. Hence, option (3) is the correct option.

2. Ans.(3). The third paragraph mentions that people believed there was life after death and that the body would be resurrected. This forced the people to abstain from dissecting the human body. Hence, option (3) is the correct option.

3. Ans.(1). The first paragraph supports option (1). Hence, option (1) is the right choice.

4. Ans.(3). The seventh paragraph supports options (1) and (2). The third paragraph supports option (4). Option (3) finds no direct or indirect support from the text. Hence, option (3) is the correct option.

5. Ans.(1). The passage is about anatomy. Hence, option (1) is the right choice.

Power of Apti - DI / DS / LR 

Logical Reasoning # 2

DIRECTIONS: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it.

A University offers five specialisation disciplines Agriculture, Marketing, Finance, Systems and Personnel for Post-Graduate studies in Management Sciences. Five students Abhijit, Vijay, Saira, Deepak and Meeta opt for different specialisations while studying from four different institutes A, B, C & D.

> Institute D doesn't provide facility to study Agriculture and Systems Management
>  Only Abhijit and Deepak have taken Marketing as the specialisation and they are studying in different Institutes
> Both the lady students are studying in Institute D
> Vijay is the only student who has taken Finance. He is studying in Institute B
> Deepak does not study in Institute A
> Abhijit and Deepak do not go to any of the institutes to which Vijay, Saira or Meeta go

1. In which of the following institutes is Abhijit studying?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

2. In which of the following institutes is Deepak studying?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

3. Which discipline(s) has (have) not been opted by any student?
(1) Agriculture only
(2) Systems only
(3) Personnel only
(4) Both Agriculture and Systems

4. Which of the following combinations is right?
(1) Deepak – Finance
(2) Meeta – Personnel
(3) Marketing – Institute D
(4) Vijay – Institute C

5. Which are the specialisations opted by two students each?
(1) Marketing only
(2) Personnel only
(3) Finance only
(4) Both Marketing and Personnel

Power of Apti  - DI / DS / LR Video Solutions

Logical Reasoning # 2

Power of Apti - DI / DS / LR Solutions

Logical Reasoning # 2

SOLUTIONS (view video above to understand in depth)

By the twin matrix procedure we can prepare the following table:

Power of Apti - GK / Current Affairs

1. Final verdict on privacy arriving! The Supreme Court has indicated that it may deliver its verdict on whether right to privacy constitutes a fundamental right under the Constitution next week. A nine-judge Constitution bench had reserved its verdict on the issue on August 2 after voicing concern over possible misuse of personal information in public domain. It had observed that protection of  the concept of privacy in the technological era was a "losing battle". The bench, which had favoured "overarching" guidelines to protect private information in public domain, said there was a need to "maintain the core of privacy" as the notion of privacy was fast becoming irrelevant in an all-pervading technological era. This judgement will be a milestone for an India that has suddenly leapfrogged into the "digital age" with little preparation as far as common citizens' understanding of cyber security is concerned.

2. Beefing it up: The Maharashtra government has moved the Supreme Court challenging the Bombay High Court’s verdict which had decriminalised possession of beef in case the animals were slaughtered outside the state. The high court had termed as “unconstitutional” the provisions which held mere possession of beef as crime, but had upheld the ban on slaughter of bulls and bullocks (imposed by the Maharashtra government). It had also decriminalised possession of beef in case the animals were slaughtered outside the state. In 2015, the ban on the slaughter of bulls and bullocks was also included in the Act by an amendment. The beef politics refuses to abate!

3. Mera beta engineer nahin banega : According to the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), over 27 lakh engineering seats have been lying vacant across various engineering colleges in India since the last three years. Almost 9,07,632 seats remained vacant across various colleges in 2016-17, as compared to 8,97,914 in the previous year. These vacancies are caused by many reasons such as increased intake in various colleges, increase in the number of colleges and complicated selection mechanisms and board eligibility norms. Meanwhile, politicians keep highlighting how India's massive demographic dividend is helping it leapfrog into the 21st century!

4. Now, now, keep calm everybody - he won't nuke us : US Defense Secretary James Mattis said his country still hopes the North Korea crisis can be solved through diplomacy. He said war between the two sides would be "catastrophic" and that diplomacy was providing results. The statement came after North Korea said it was finalizing plans to strike the US Pacific territory of Guam with missiles. As expected, President Trump instantly warned North Korea that it should be "very, very nervous" if it even as much as thinks about attacking the US or its allies. Australian PM Malcolm Turnbull said his country would stand by its ally US and fight North Korea if it attacks America. Things have gone downhill very rapidly in 2017 between US and NK (DPRK).

5. The Great Dictator of Venezuela : Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro recognized the Socialist Party-dominated constituent assembly as the country's most powerful institution in his first appearance at the highly criticized legislative body. Critics have said the election cast aside any remaining checks on Maduro's power. The protege of the charismatic Hugo Chavez, Nicolas Maduro's grip on power has been firmed by firing his main critic within the ruling socialist coalition, chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega. She has been ordered to stand trial. Ortega accused Maduro of human rights abuses after his loyalist Supreme Court started nullifying laws passed by Congress earlier this year. Read more about Maduro here.

6. Milkha Singh, a great goodwill Ambassador : Legendary Indian athlete Milkha Singh has been appointed WHO Goodwill Ambassador for Physical Activity in South-East Asia Region, An estimated 8.5 million people die due to NCDs every year in WHO South-East Asia Region. Many of these deaths are premature and nearly all are lifestyle related, which means people don't exercise or walk much. An alarming 70 % of boys, 80 % of girls and nearly 33 % adults report insufficient physical activity which is becoming a common feature of modern life. WHO recommends at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children and 150 minutes of weekly activity for adults to keep away non-communicable diseases.

7. The Great Wall of Israel : Israel has revealed the construction of a sensor-equipped underground wall alongside the 60 km border with the Gaza Strip, which it described as a counter-measure to Hamas tunnels leading outside of its coastal territory. Costing $1.1bn and to be completed within two years under an accelerated schedule, the wall will be built using concrete and be fitted with sensors, and is expected to reach dozens of metres deep into the ground and to stand at six metres high from ground level. Israel has described it as a territorial counterpart to its Iron Dome short-range rocket interceptor, capable of blunting Hamas' limited means of challenging its superior armed forces. Peace, meanwhile, eludes everyone in the region. And PM Netanyahu is getting deeper into some alleged corruption scandals.

8. Aadhar once more. Aadhar till you die! The government may soon make Aadhaar mandatory for buying shares and mutual funds. The move is aimed to tighten the loopholes that some fraudulent investors exploit and make money by converting black income into white through the stock market. The government still thinks that the PAN may not be enough to plug tax leakages in financial sector. Not only in financial markets, the government has also made Aadhaar a mandatory for farmers to get crop insurance policies. The whole idea of Aadhar being mandatory is under scrutiny in the Supreme Court.

9. Tens of children die due to government negligence : The alleged disruption in the supply of liquid oxygen at Gorakhpur's Baba Raghav Das Medical College's hospital has claimed the lives of more than 60 children. The shortage of oxygen led to the gruesome situation where children died due to lack of it. CM Adityanath Yogi has been a fighter against encephalitis, which is a sudden onset inflammation of the brain, killing many people (especially children) regularly. The families of the children have claimed that the doctors were not treating them well and the hospital was not even providing the medicines which were required for the treatment. It is a human tragedy beyond all normal proportions, but it remains to be seen what action is taken beyond a few suspensions here and there.

10. Will it be a war? Some sources through Chinese military said that the People’s Liberation Army is increasingly aware of the possibility of war, but will aim to limit any conflict to the level of skirmishes, such as those contested by India and Pakistan in Kashmir. It will deploy aircraft and strategic missiles to paralyse Indian mountain divisions stationed in the Himalayas on the border with China. India in 2010 established a naval base in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, close to the Strait of Malacca with the narrowest channel being just 1.7 kn wide, putting China's trade movement at grave risk. However, diplomatic sources indicate that war at Dokalam may never happen. This compilation & quiz prepared by Team Civils Tapasya - PT's IAS Academy

Power of Apti - Quiz on GK / Current Affairs

Q1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the Right to Privacy in the digital world?
(Constitution and Law, Dynamic)
(1) Right to Privacy of the customer is followed by almost all  the software companies around the world
(2) Internet Privacy is a fickle thing at best, as it can be easily hacked into and personal data can be stolen
(3) There have been no movements to curb the attackers and violaters of the Right to Privacy of internet users
(4) Use of proxies and VPNs is illegal in many countries including India

Q2. Which of the following is not a reason for the enormous number of student vacancies in Indian Engineering colleges?
(Education, Dynamic)
(1) Increase in intake of students by many universities
(2) Difficult and complicated admission mechanisms and the cutoffs for board examinations
(3) Increase in the number of universities, colleges, which is not need
(4) None of these

Q3. How many regions(distributions) are present in the World Health Organisation?
(United Nations, Static)
(1) 2
(2) 5
(3) 6
(4) 10

Q4. When was Hamas, a  Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalist organization, founded? 
This compilation & quiz prepared by Team Civils Tapasya - PT's IAS Academy)
(World Politics, Static)
(1) 1987
(2) 1975
(3) 1947
(4) 1991

Q5. When is the 'International Day for Tolerance' celebrated?
(United Nations, Static)
(1) 26th November
(2) 16th November
(3) 2nd October
(4) 5th March

Q6. With which motor cycle firm did Bajaj Auto recently tie up with?
(Corporates, Dynamic)
(1) Harley Davidson
(2) Honda
(3) Royal Enfield
(4) Triumph

Q7. Which city is about to launch India’s first Heli-taxi service?
(Science and Technology, Dynamic)
(1) Mumbai
(2) Bengaluru
(3) Kolkata
(4) Delhi

[##link## Go to July 2017 content]

Q8. The NGT has banned the use of non-biodegradable plastic bags (less than 50 microns in thickness) in  This compilation & quiz prepared by Team Civils Tapasya - PT's IAS Academy)
(Environment Ecology and Climate Change, Dynamic)
(1) Madhya Pradhesh
(2) Delhi
(3) Goa
(4) Karnataka

Q9. Hamid Ansari was first elected to the post of Vice president in
(People and Personalities, Static)
(1) 2005
(2) 2007
(3) 2011
(4) 2013

Q10. The first Olympic Summer Games took place in the year
(Entertainment Games Sports, Static)
(1) 1850
(2) 1890
(3) 1896
(4) 1900


Q1.(1)  |  Q2.(4)  |  Q3.(3)  |  Q4.(1)  |  Q5.(2)  |  Q6.(4)  |  Q7.(2)  |  Q8.(2)  |  Q9.(2)  |  Q10.(3)

Power of Apti - GK / Current Affairs Videos

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Civils Tapasya portal - by PT's IAS Academy: Power of Apti - Lesson 4
Power of Apti - Lesson 4
POWER OF APTI - LESSON 4 : Power of Apti is your classroom in your hands, 24x7, with all aptitude subjects covered. VIdeo explanations included :) Happy Success!
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