The industrial revolution was a transformative phase for Europe, which left a deep imprint on the whole world in the few decades after its birth. Modern humanity has enjoyed the bounties of industrial production, as much as we are bound to suffer the fallout of unrestrained emissions. A deep look at what really happened.
A. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION'S GENESIS
Perhaps those were the days to enjoy the last phases of the medieval era, as the whole force of a storm called Industrial Revolution was about to strike. Everything would change in a few decades, not just means of production!
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A.2 The cottage industry in England
- The cottage industry proved to be profitable for the urban merchants, since they could sell the finished cloth for far more than they paid the famers to make it. The cottage industry helped to prepare the country for the Industrial Revolution, by boosting the English economy through the increase of trade, that occured as the country became well-known overseas for its high-quality and low-cost exports. Previously, tradesmen had done all the manufacturing themselves, so the idea of subcontracting was new and appealing.
- The cottage industry was also a good source of auxiliary funds for the rural people. However, many farming farmilies came to depend on the enterprise; thus, when industrialization and the Agricultural Revolution reduced the need for farm workers, many were forced to leave their homes and move to the city. This content prepared by Civils Tapasya portal, PT education
B. FARM ENCLOSURE LAWS
The solution was to enclose the land, and this meant enclosing entire villages. Landlords knew that the peasants would not give up their land voluntarily, so they appealed by petition to Parliament, a difficult and costly adventure at best. The first Enclosure Act was passed in 1710, but was not enforced until the 1750s. In the ten years between 1750 and 1760, more than 150 acts were passed, and between 1800 and 1810, Parliament passed more than 900 acts of enclosure. While enclosure ultimately contributed to an increased agricultural surplus, necessary to feed a population that would double in the 18th century, it also brought disaster to the countryside. Peasant farmers were dispossessed of their land, and were now forced to find work in the factories, which began springing up in towns and cities.
B.1 Britain's primacy
Conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. Having used wood for heat instead of coal, Britain was left with large deposits of coal remaining to fuel the new ideas. Any raw supplies Britain itself did not have, could be provided by its many colonies. These colonies also provided captive markets for the abundance of new goods provided by the industrial revolution.
B.2 A new banking system
In Britain, expansion had led to new "private banking," a new money economy, and trading organizations, such as the Hanseatic League. Modern credit facilities also appeared, such as the state bank, the bourse, the promissory note, and other new media of exchange. This created economic stimulus, which in turn, gave the people more money to spend.
C. MAJOR INNOVATIONS
C.1 Agricultural innovations
C.2 Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741)
Jethro Tull's major contributions to the Agricultural Revolution were his two inventions: the seed drill and horse hoe. The seed drill allowed seeds to be easily planted deep into the earth, instead of on top, where the majority were washed away or otherwise lost. The machine was pulled by horses, and consisted of rotating drills or runners that would plant seeds at a set depth. His other invention, the horse hoe, was another revolutionary device, which allowed for much more efficient planting by allowing a horse to pull a plow quickly.
C.3 Lord Townshend
Lord Townsend, called "Turnip" Townshend by others, was famous for his cultivation of turnips and clover on his estate in Norfolk.
He introduced the four-course rotation of crops, which helped keep the ground good for farming almost all year.
This cycle consisted of wheat, turnips, oats or barley, and clover (गेहूं, शलजम, जई / जौ और तिपतिया घास).
By breeding only animals with certain qualities, Robert Bakewell was able to breed much more livestock. Bakewell kept elaborate genealogical records of his valuable animals and maintained his stock carefully; he was renowned for his success with sheep. By the end of the eighteenth century, his principles of stock breeding were being practiced widely.
C.5 Innovations and inventions
In 1760, the amount of wool exported was almost thirty times that of cotton. Demand for cotton grew with a change in the upper class fashion, and Britain started to allow more cotton production. Soon, not enough cotton could not be made to satisfy the demand. This demand was the inspiration for many of the inventions which we describe ahead.
So, while spinners were often busy, weavers often waited for yarn. As such, the flying shuttle effectively doubled a weaver's production of cloth.
C.7 James Hargreaves "Spinning Jenny"
The thread, unfortunately, was usually coarse and lacked strength. Despite this shortcoming, over 20,000 of the machines were in use in Britain by 1778.
C.8 Richard Arkwright's "Water Frame"
Rollers produced yarn of the correct thickness, while a set of spindles twisted fibers together. The machine was able to produce a thread far stronger than any other available at the time.
C.9 Samuel Crompton's "Crompton's Mule"
Within just a 35 year period, more than 1,00,000 power looms, with 93,30,000 spindles were put into service in England and Scotland. Britain took advantage of the Americas' available new cotton, using it to help absorb the demand. By 1830, the importation of raw cotton had increased to eight times its past rate and half of Britain's exports were refined cotton. At this point, the demand was high enough to provide inspiration for what is probably the most well known invention of the Revolution : the steam engine.
C.10 James Watt's "Steam Engine"
C.11 Robert Fulton's "Steamboat"
In the beginning, the ship was more expensive to build and operate than sailing vessels, but the steamship had some advantages. It could take off under its own power, and it was more steadfast in storms.
C.12 Stephenson's "Steam Powered Train"
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C.13 Innovations in the textiles industry
With the use of machines and an "assembly-line" approach, it was possible to make enormous amounts of fabric in less time and for less money.
- The major inventions were
- 1733 Flying shuttle, invented by John Kay - an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster
1742 Cotton mills were first opened in England
1764 Spinning jenny, invented by James Hargreaves - the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel
1764 Water frame, invented by Richard Arkwright - the first powered textile machine
1769 Arkwright patented the water frame
1770 Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny
1773 The first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories
1779 Crompton invented the spinning mule, that allowed for greater control over the weaving process
1785 Cartwright patented the power loom. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for invention of the variable speed batton, 1813
1787 Cotton goods production had increased 10 fold since 1770
1789 Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US
1790 Arkwright built the first steam powered textile factory in Nottingham, England
1792 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin - a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fibre
1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom, that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom, by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards
1813 William Horrocks invented the variable speed batton (for an improved power loom)
1856 William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye This content prepared by Civils Tapasya portal, PT education
To get a feel of the turbulent and tragic times, check out our analyses here [##leaf## Tectonic Shifts]
C.14 The Factory System
The Factory System impacted the Domestic System in fundamental ways. Here is a detailed comparison :
D. Repercussions of the Industrial Revolution
During the Industrial Revolution, the social structure of society changed dramatically. Before the Revolution, most people lived in small villages, working either in agriculture or as skilled craftsmen. They lived, and often worked, as a family, doing everything by hand. In fact, three quarters of Britain's population lived in the countryside, and farming was the predominant occupation. However, due to the new enclosure laws, many people migrated to places where factories were located, in search of jobs. There were many people who were forced to work at the new factories. It also meant that they made less money for working longer hours. Add to this, the higher living expenses due to urbanization, and one can easily see that many families' resources would be extremely stretched.
- As a result, women and children were sent out to work, making up 75% of early workers. Families were forced to do this, since they desperately needed money, while factory owners were happy to employ women and children for a number of reasons. First of all, they could be paid very little, and children could be controlled more easily than adults, generally through violent beatings. Children also had smaller hands, which were often needed to reach in among the parts of a machine. Furthermore, employers found that children were more malleable, and adapted to the new methods much better than adults did.
- Children were also sent to work in mines, being small enough to get more coal and ore from the deep, and very often, unsafe pits. They could also be forced to work as long as eighteen hours each day. For these reasons, children, as young as eight years old, were sent to factories - usually those which manufactured textiles - where they became part of a growing and profitable business. This unprecedented growth and dominance of the profit motive was another social change that occurred during the Industrial Revolution. Capitalism flourished and an atmosphere of laissez faire was encouraged.
- Hence, there were little or no government regulations imposed upon factory policies, and this allowed the wealthy, middle-class owners to pursue whichever path was most profitable, regardless of the safety and well being of their workers. This relentless pursuit of money caused another important social change: the ultimate breakdown of the family unit. Since workers, especially women and children, were labouring for up to eighteen hours each day, there was very little family contact, and the only time that one was at home was spent sleeping. People also had to share housing with other families, which further contributed to the breakdown of the family unit.
- As a result, children received very little education, had stunted growth, and were sickly. They also grew up quite maladjusted, having never been taught how to behave properly. The living conditions were indeed horrible; working families often lived in slums with little sanitation, and infant mortality skyrocketed. During the early Industrial Revolution, 50% of infants died before the age of two. This content prepared by Civils Tapasya portal, PT education
To get a feel of the turbulent and tragic times, check out our analyses here [##leaf## Tectonic Shifts]
D.1 Dissent in England - the Luddites
Although English officials had managed to repress the violence of the Luddites, they could not stop the discontent that was growing across the country. Workers became interested in politics for the first time, demanding better working conditions, less corruption in the government, and universal suffrage. In 1819, a "reform meeting" was arranged to take place in Manchester on August 16th, where two radicals, Henry Orator Hunt and Richard Carlile, were to speak (The Peterloo Masscare). The public assembly at St. Peter's Field drew a crowd estimated at 50,000 people, which worried the city magistrates and induced them to call in the military to quell a potential riot.
The Manchester Yeomanry responded and, led by Captain Hugh Birley, charged into the docile crowd, killing eleven people and wounding 400. It was later said that many of the soldiers had been drunk at the time, but the British parliament supported the troops, and several of the event's organizers were charged with unlawful assembly and sentenced to time in jail. The event became known as the Peterloo Massacre, in a reference to Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.
D.3 Reforms implemented due to social conditions
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Following is a list of the various reforms implemented due to the social and working conditions in Britain :
D.4 Political effects of the Industrial Revolution
Although Britain had become a constitutional monarchy a century earlier, the vast majority of the population remained disenfranchised from the electoral system. As industrial strength grew along with a more forcible middle class, electoral reform was a necessity to balance the new society's power structure.
- The Charter called for the following changes to the Parliamentary system
- Universal Male Suffrage, Annual Parliaments, Vote by ballot, Abolition of the property qualification for MPs, Payment of MPs, Equal electoral constituencies
(Chartism - too much talk, too little action)
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D.5 Effect on the rest of the world
The quick industrialization across Europe during the 19th century led to a great increase in goods produced, as well as, a demand for raw materials. This demand, coupled with increased nationalist pride, led nations to seek colonies abroad in which to produce and trade goods.The main expansion for the European colonial powers occurred in Africa. By 1914, the entire continent, with the exception of Liberia and Abyssinia, were controlled by European nations. England also took control of India and Hong Kong during this period of expansion. By the beginning of WWI, England had an empire which stretched across every continent in the world. Vast amounts of natural resources were extracted from these colonies, which aided the British industrial effort, but left many of the nations bankrupt. In short, industrialization in Europe had far reaching consequences for the rest of the world. While it made Britain the ultimate power for over a century, it can be argued that its rule over the world caused conflict and internal strife, which continues to this day. This content prepared by Civils Tapasya portal, PT education
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